ܚܕ ܠܫܢܐ ܩܐ ܚܕܐ ܐܘ


المحرر موضوع: ܚܕ ܠܫܢܐ ܩܐ ܚܕܐ ܐܘ  (زيارة 3845 مرات)

0 الأعضاء و 1 ضيف يشاهدون هذا الموضوع.

غير متصل بولص دنخـا

  • عضو فعال جدا
  • ***
  • مشاركة: 145
  • الجنس: ذكر
    • مشاهدة الملف الشخصي
    • www.nohadra.com
ܚܕ ܠܫܢܐ ܩܐ ܚܕܐ ܐܘ
« في: 09:50 02/11/2005 »

1. ܥܘܬܕܐ
ܢܝܫܝ ܡ̣ܢ ܡܩܪܒܼܬܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܬܫܪܪܐ ܝܠܗ ܩܐ ܡܒܪܝܬܐ ܕܚܕ ܕܘܪܫܐ ܐܟܕܝܡܝܐ ܒܝܠ ܟܠܝܗܝ ܝܠܝܦ̈ܐ ܘܝܕܘܥ̈ܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܡܛܠ ܡܝܬܝܬܐ ܠܐܝܬܘܬܐ ܐܢܝ ܥܠܠ̈ܐ ܘܐܘܪ̈ܚܬܐ ܒܘܫ ܓܡܝܪ̈ܐ ܠܚܘܝܕܐ ܕܠܫܢܢ ܘܡܪܡܬܗ ܠܚܕ ܕܪܓܼܐ ܥܠܝܐ ܘܦܫܝܛܐ ܕܡܨܐ ܡܓܡܪ ܠܘܠܝܬܗ ܓܘ ܝܠܦܬܐ ܕܩܪܝܬܐ ܘܟܬܒܼܬܐ، ܓܡܝܪܐ ܒܚܫܚܬ̈ܐ ܘܬܘܪܨܡܡܠܠܐ ܘܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܡܬܛܘܪ̈ܢܐ ܘܦܫܝܛ̈ܐ ܒܚܩܠܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܘܝܘܠܦܢܐ.
ܒܝܕ ܡܥܒܼܪܬܐ ܕܫܘܚܠܦ̈ܐ ܡܘܕܒܼܩܐ ܥܡ ܬܚܡܢܬ̈ܐ ܕܟܢܫܐ ܘܚܝܘܬܗ ܙܒܼܢܢܝܬܐ، ܫܘܚܠܦ̈ܐ ܓܘ ܛܟܼܣܐ ܕܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܡܘܕܒܼܩ̈ܐ ܥܡ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܒܪܢܫܘܬܐ، ܬܘܪܨܡܡܠܠܐ ܡܘܕܒܼܩܐ ܥܡ ܬܚܡܢـܝܬ̈ܐ ܕܒܪܢܫܐ ܣܘܪܝܐ ܒܙܒܼܢܐ ܕܩܐܡ ܘܡܥܒܼܪܬܐ ܕܚܫܚܬ̈ܐ ܚܕܬ̈ܐ ܓܘ ܠܫܢܢ. ܣܘܟܠܝ ܝܠܗ ܕܐܚܢܢ ܒܡܨܝܐ ܝܘܚ ܠܐܙܠܐ ܥܡ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܦܪܡܝܬܐ ܕܥܡܢ ܘܚܘܕܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܢ ܕܠܐ ܗܘܐ ܪܚܩܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܫܘܚܠܦܐ ܟܝܢܝܐ ܕܟܢܫܐ ܒܐܚܪܬܐ ܗܘܐ ܚܕ ܠܫܢܐ ܢܘܟܼܪܝܐ ܥܠܗ ܘܒܗ̇ܝ ܐܚܪܝܬܐ ܦܐܫ ܡܐܝܟܿ ܚܕ ܠܫܢܐ ܡܝܬܐ ܐܚܟ̰ܝ ܦܝܫܐ ܕܟܼܝܪܐ ܓܘ ܒܘܨܝ̈ܐ ܕܝܕܘܥ̈ܐ ܘܝܠܝܦ̈ܐ ܕܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܓܘ ܒܝܬܨܘܒ̈ܐ( ܘܝܠܗ ܒܙܒܼܢܐ ܕܩܐܡ). ܐܝܬܠܝ ܣܒܼܪܐ ܕܬܚܡܢܬܝ ܐܗܐ ܕܝܠܗ̇ ܡܛܠ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܘܦܝܫܬܐ ܕܡܐܙܠܬܐ ܚـܝܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܢ ܕܫܩܠܐ ܫܘܦܐ ܓܘ ܕܘܪ̈ܫܐ ܘܒܘܨܝ̈ܐ ܕܝܠܝܦ̈ܐ ܘܝܕܘܥ̈ܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܘܟܠ ܚܕ ܕܐܝܬܠܗ ܣܒܼܪܐ ܒܝܕ ܚـܝܬܐ ܘܐܡܝܢܘܬܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܐܘܡܬܐ ܕܦܠܚ ܒܩܫܝܘܬܐ ܘܒܣܘܪܗܒܼܐ ܡܛܠ ܡܥܒܼܪܬܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܚܘܕܬܐ ܓܘ ܠܫܢܢ. ܐܚܟ̰ܝ ܒܐܗܐ ܦܨܠܐ ܒܕ ܡܨܚ ܩܪܒܢܚ ܠܡܢܬ̈ܐ ܕܐܘܡܬܢ ܒܫܘܡܗ̈ܝ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܘܚܠܢܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܢ ܘܐܡܝܢܘܬܗ ܒܕܥܬܝܕ.
ܐܝܬܠܝ ܝܕܥܬܐ ܟܠܢܝܬܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܬܫܪܪܐ ܒܕ ܒܪܐ ܚܕ ܕܘܪܫܐ ܕܪܩܘܒܼܠܝܐ ܚܪܘܦܐ ܘܠܐ ܣܙܓܪܬܐ ܟܠܢܝܬܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܪ̈ܢܝܐ ܕܚـܘܕܬܐ ܘܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ، ܐܝܢܐ ܒܗ̇ܝ ܥܕܢܐ ܒܕ ܗܘܐ ܩܐ ܕܐܢ̈ܐ ܦܪ̈ܨܘܦܐ ܡܨܝܬܐ ܠܓܫܘܩܐ ܠܡܐܙܠܬܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܕܒܪܢܫܘܬܐ ܘܫܘܚܠܦ̈ܐ ܕܒܪ̈ܝܐ ܝܢܐ ܓܘܝܗܝ ܡܛܠ ܐܡܝܢܘܬܐ ܕܐܢ̈ܐ ܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܓܘ ܡܐܙܠܬܐ ܕܐܝܬܘܬܐ ܓܘ ܕܐܗܐ ܒܪܝܬܐ ܘܐܗܐ ܝܠܗ ܩܢܘܢܐ ܟܝܢܝܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ.
2. ܬܫܪܪܐ ܒܓܕܝܡܘܬܐ
ܢܝܫܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܕܐܗܐ ܒܘܨܝܐ ܝܠܗ ܡܫܟ̰ܚܬܐ ܕܚܕܐ ܐܘܪܚܐ ܥܠܡܝܬܐ ܡܛܠ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܢ ܒܚܩܠ̈ܐ ܕܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ، ܚܫܚܬ̈ܐ ܘܬܘܪܨܡܡܠܠܐ.
ܬܫܪܪܢ ܝܠܗ ܚܕܐ ܡܢܗܪܬܐ ܥܠ ܠܫܢܢ ܘܦܘܠܓܼ̈ܐ ܕܗܘܐܠܗܘܢ ܡܥܠ ܙܒܼܢܐ ܒܥܠܠ̈ܐ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܘܐܢ ܡܐܙܠܬܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܢ ܐܙܠ݇ܐ ܒܐܗܐ ܨܘܪܬܐ، ܐܢ̈ܐ ܠܥܙ̈ܐ ܒܕ ܗܘܝ ܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܡܚܕܕ̈ܐ ܡܐܝܟܿ ܕܡܚـܙܘܝܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܬܫܥܝܬܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܘܬܐܘܪ̈ܝܐ ܟܢܘܫܝܝ̈ܐ ܓܘ ܕܐܗܐ ܒܪܝܬܐ.
ܬܫܪܪܢ ܐܗܐ ܡܚـܙܘܝܐ ܝܠܗ ܩܐ ܠܢ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܕܐܘܡܬܢ ܠܐ ܝܠܗ ܡܨܝܐ ܠܚـܝܘܕܐ ܠܥܙ̈ܗ ܕܘܟܬܢܝ̈ܐ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܘܪܚـܩܢܬܐ ܕܠܥܙ̈ܢ ܒܘܫ ܫܩܠܗܘܢ ܫܘܦܐ ܐܝܡܢ ܕܒܪܐܠܗܘܢ ܓܘ ܐܘܡܬܢ ܥܕܬܬ̈ܐ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܕܡܬܒܼܠܗܘܢ ܫܡܢ̈ܐ ܬܫܥܝܬܢܝ̈ܐ ܘܕܢܘܟܼܪ̈ܝܐ ܥܠ ܓܢܝܗܝ.
ܬܫܪܪܢ ܡܚـܙܘܝܐ ܝܠܗ ܕܐܟܼܝ ܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܓܘ ܡܥܪܒܼܐ ܫܘܢܐܠܗܘܢ ܡ̣ܢ ܠܫܢܐ ܠܬܝܢܝܐ ܥܬܝܩܐ ܠܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܕܗܡܙܡܬܐ ܕܥܡܡ̈ܐ. ܒܚـܙܝܐ ܝܘܚ ܠܫܢܐ ܘܣܦܪܝܘܬܐ ܘܝܘܠܦܢܐ ܥܒܼܪܗ ܓܘ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܘܫܘܘܫܛܐ ܘܡܕܝܢܝܘܬܐ ܒܥܠܬܐ ܕܡܥܒܼܪܬܐ ܕܫܘܚܠܦ̈ܐ ܡܘܕܒܼܩ̈ܐ ܥܡ ܪ̈ܓܼܫܐ ܘܣܘܟܠ̈ܐ ܝܘܡܝ̈ܐ ܕܥܡܝܗܝ.
ܦܠܛ̈ܐ ܕܡܨܐ ܠܢ ܕܡܛܚ ܥܠܝܗܝ ܓܘ ܕܐܗܐ ܬܫܪܪܐ ܝܢܐ ܐܢ ܚܕܐ ܐܘܡܬܐ ܠܝܬܠܗ̇ ܝܕܘܥܬܢ̈ܐ ܘܝܠܝܦ̈ܐ ܒܚـܩܠ̈ܐ ܕܡܬܘܛܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܘܪܢܝܐ ܒܪܝܢܐ ܓܘ ܗ̇ܝ ܐܘܡܬܐ ܗ̇ܝܓܗܐ ܗ̇ܝ ܐܘܡܬܐ ܒܦܫܪܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܡܪܕܘܬܗ̇ ܘܒܛܠܩܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܡ̣ܢ ܕܪܓܘܫܬܐ ܕܐܝܬܘܬܐ ܘܡܕܝܢܝܘܬܐ.
ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܢ ܡܥܠ ܬܫܥܝܬܐ ܡܚـܙܘܝܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܕܗ̇ܝ ܝܠܗ̇ ܡܪܝܡܢܬܐ ܐܢ ܦܝܫܐ ܡܘܕܒܼܩܬܐ ܓܘ ܡܐܣܬܼܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܘܬܐܘܪ̈ܝܐ ܕܦܝܫܬܐ ܘܐܡܝܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܡܛܠ ܕܠܐ ܚـܘܕܬܐ ܘܒܪܝܬܐ ܚـܕܬܐ ܒܢܝ̈ܐ ܥܠ ܫܪ̈ܫܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܘܣܦܪܝܘܬܐ ܕܥܡܐ ܚـܝܐ ܠܐ ܡܨܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܘܠܐ ܣܦܪܝܘܬܐ ܘܡܪܕܘܬܐ ܕܗ̇ܘ ܥܡܐ ܚـܝܐ.
ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܟܝܢܝܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܢ ܠܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܡܬܗܘܝܢܬܐ ܒܥܠܠ̈ܐ ܡܪ̈ܝܡܢܐ ܘܢܩـܝܦܘܬ̈ܐ ܥܣܩ̈ܐ ܝܬܝܪ  ܝܢܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܡܨܝܬ̈ܗ̇ ܘܚـܝܠܗ̇ ܩܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܥܠܬܐ ܦܝܫܬܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܐܚܟ̰ܝ ܚܕܐ ܐܘܪܚܐ ܩܐ ܐܡܝܢܘܬܐ ܕܡܐܙܠܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܢ ܓܘ ܕܐܗܐ ܒܪܝܬܐ ܘܗ̇ܝ ܝܠܗ̇ ܐܘܪܚܐ ܬܪܡܝܬܢܝܬܐ ܘܣܘܟܠܝ ܝܠܗ ܒܪܝܬܐ ܕܚܕܐ ܬܪܡܝܬܐ ܕܪܝܫܬܐ ܒܝܕܘܥܬܢ̈ܐ ܘܝܠܝܦ̈ܐ ܕܒܢ̈ܝ ܐܘܡܬܢ ܡ̣ܢ ܟܠܗܘܢ ܩܘܒܘܚـܝܬ̈ܐ ܡܛܠ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܢ ܘܚܘܕܬܗ ܕܚܒܼܫ ܟܠܗܘܢ ܪ̈ܓܼܫܐ ܘܗܢܝܢ̈ܐ ܕܟܠܗܘܢ ܩܘܒܘܚـܝܬܐ ܕܟܠܗ ܥܡܢ ܕܠܐ ܦܘܪܫܘܢܝܐ ܘܚـܝܕ ܠܣܪܛܐ، ܚܫܚܬ̈ܐ ܘܬܘܪܨܡܡܠܠܐ ܕܠܫܢܢ.
3. ܢܝܫܐ
ܚܕ ܛܟܼܣܐ ܓܡܝܪܐ ܘܡܬܛܘܪܢܐ ܕܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ، ܕܚܫܚܬܼ̈ܐ ܘܬܘܪܨܡܡܠܠܐ ܝܢܐ ܚܕܐ ܦܣܘܥܬܐ ܩܐ ܚܘܝܕܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܕܐܘܡܬܢ ܘܓܡܝܪܘܬܗ ܘܫܘܘܫܛܗ.


4. ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢ̈ܐ
ـ ܚܕܐ ܓܫܩܬܐ ܥܠ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܚܕܐ ܡܢܬܐ ܕܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܓܘ ܕܐܗܐ ܒܪܝܬܐ ـ

1.4 ܡܩܪܒܼܬܐ
ܟܠܝ ܐܪ̈ܟܝܠܘܓܝܐ ܘܐܬܼܘܪ̈ܘܠܘܓ̰ܝܐ ܘܡܨܥ̈ܐ ܝܢ ܡܢ̈ܐ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܕܦܝܫܐ ܝܢܐ ܡܘܫܟ̰ܚܐ ܒܝܕ ܚܦܪ̈ܝܬܐ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܫܪܘܪ̈ܐ ܝܢܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܐܬܝܐ ܝܠܗ ܠܐܝܬܘܬܐ ܠܐ ܒܨܘܪܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܩܕܡ ܬܪ̈ܝܢ ܡܠܝܘܢ̈ܐ ܫܢ̈ܐ ܒܛܘܪܗ ܫܪܘܝܐ ܘܐܪ̈ܟܠܘܓܝܐ ܡܕܟܼܘܪܐ ܝܢܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܒܣܘܟܠܗ ܥܠܡܝܐ ܫܩܝܠܐ ܝܠܗ ܫܘܦܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܩܕܡ 40 ܐܠܦ̈ܐ ܫܢ̈ܐ ܘܐܝܡܢ ܕܐܗܐ ܒܪܢܫܐ ܒܥܒܼܪܐ ܝܠܗ ܓܘ ܪ̈ܗܛܐ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܘܒܢܝܬܐ ܕܒܝܬܘܬܐ ܘܟܦܫܬܐ ܓܘ ܩܘܒܘܚܝܬ̈ܐ ܙܥܘܪ̈ܐ ܘܓܘܪ̈ܐ ܘܐܚܪܬܐ ܟܢܘܫܝ̈ܐ ܘܐܡܘܬ̈ܐ.
ܐܝܡܢ ܕܚܕ ܟܢܫܐ ܓܘܪܐ ܒܚـܝܐ ܝܠܗ ܥܠ ܚܕܐ ܐܪܥܐ ܡܬܘܚܒܬܐ ܒܗܘܝܐ ܝܠܗ ܒܝܠ ܗܕܡ̈ܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܟܢܫܐ ܡܨܠܚܢܘܬܐ ܘܗܢܝܢ̈ܐ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܒܝܠ ܗܕܡ̈ܗ ܕܟܐ ܩܪܚܠܗ ܐܩܘܢܘܡܝܐ ܡܫܘܬܦܐ ܘܐܗܐ ܒܡܬܚܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܓܘ ܒܪܝܬܐ ܕܡܪܕܘܬܐ، ܬܫܥܝܬܐ، ܐܝܬܝܩܘܢ ܘܪ̈ܓܼܫܐ ܡܫܘܬܦ̈ܐ ܒܝܠ ܕܐܢ̈ܐ ܗܕܡ̈ܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܟܢܫܐ. ܐܝܡܢ ܕܐܢ̈ܐ ܥܡܠ̈ܐ ܘܣܢܝܩܘܬ̈ܐ ܟܝܢܝ̈ܐ ܒܒܪܝܐ ܝܢܐ ܓܘ ܕܐܗܐ ܟܢܫܐ ܗ̇ܝܓܗ̇ ܥܒܼܪܐ ܝܢܐ ܩܘܒܘܚܝܬ̈ܐ ܘܒܝܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܟܢܫܐ ܓܘ ܚܕ ܟܘܬܫܐ ܡܛܠ ܫܠܛܢܬܐ ܕܥܝ̈ܕܝܗܝ، ܡܪ̈ܕܘܬܝܗܝ، ܪ̈ܓܼܫܝܗܝ ܘܠܥܙ̈ܝܗܝ ܘܒܫܘܠܡܐ ܩܪܡܬܐ ܘܙܟܼܘܬܐ ܒܗܘܝܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܩܐ ܒܘܫܝܘܬܐ ܕܩܘܒܘܚܝܬ̈ܐ ܕܡܨܝܐ ܝܢܐ ܥܒܼܪܝ ܓܘ ܚܕܐ ܓܡܝܪܘܬܐ ܘܡܬܫܡܠܢܘܬܐ ܕܒܪܝܬܐ ܕܚܕܐ ܡܪܕܘܬܐ ܘܠܫܢܐ ܡܘܕܒܼܩܐ ܥܡ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܘܫܘܘܫܛܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܟܢܫܐ ܓܘ ܡܐܙܠܬܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܐܢܫܝܬܐ.
ܠܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܪܚܩܐ ܠܦܪܡܝܬܐ ܕܟܠ ܚܕ ܒܪܢܫܐ ܐܬܝܐ ܒܥܠܬܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܒܝܘܠܘܿܓ̰ܝܬܐ ܘܦܪܡܝܬܗ ܥܠܝܬܐ ܡܨܝܬܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܟܠ ܩܘܒܘܚܬܐ ܕܒܪܝܐ ܩܐ ܓܢܗ̇ ܚܕ ܠܫܢܐ ܡܫܘܬܦܐ ܐܝܡܢ ܕܗܕܡ̈ܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܩܘܒܘܚܬܐ ܒܪ̈ܝܐ ܝܢܐ ܒܝܠܝܗܝ ܗܢܝܢ̈ܐ ܘܣܢܝܩܘܬ̈ܐ ܡܫܘܬܦ̈ܐ ܘܐܗܐ ܓܕܫܬܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܓܘ ܥܡܢ ܒܩܘܒܘܚـܝܬ̈ܗ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܕܐܕܝܘܡ ܒܩܪܝܐ ܝܘܚ ܣܘܪܝܐ ܒܠܫܢܢ ܣܘܕܝܐ (ܐܬܘܪܝܐ، ܟܠܕܝܐ، ܣܘܪܝܝܐ ܘܐܪܡܝܐ) ܡܨܝܐ ܗܘܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܩܕܡ 3000 ܫܢ̈ܐ ܕܡܛܐ ܗܘܐ ܠܚܕ ܕܪܓܼܐ ܥܠܝܐ ܓܘ ܣܡܠܬܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܘܠܫܢܗ ܦܪܣܠܗ ܓܘ ܟܠܗ̇ ܦܢܝܬܐ ܘܗܘܐ ܠܗ ܗ̇ܘ ܠܫܢܐ ܒܘܫ ܥܬܝܪܐ ܩܐ ܡܪܚܫܬܐ ܕܚـܝܘܬܐ ܘܡܐܙܠܬܐ ܕܒܪܢܫܘܬܐ ܓܘ ܒܝܬܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ. ܐܝܢܐ ܐܗܐ ܡܐܙܠܬܐ ܠܐ ܡܨܐܠܗ̇ ܕܗܘܝܐ ܐܡܝܢܬܐ ܘܠܫܢܐ ܕܐܘܡܬܢ ܠܐ ܡܨܐܠܗ ܕܙܟܼܐ ܓܘ ܟܘܬܫܗ ܥܠ ܠܥܙ̈ܐ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܕܦܠܛܠܗܘܢ ܡܢܗ ܘܡܘܢܫܐܠܗ ܠܫܡܗ ܐܘܡܬܢܝܐ ܘܫܩܠܗ ܠܓܢܗ ܠܫܡܢ̈ܐ ܕܢܘܟܼܪ̈ܝܐ ܘܕܘܟܬܢܝ̈ܐ ܘܬܘܕܝܬܢܝ̈ܐ ܘܦܫܠܗ ܒܚـܝܐ ܓܘ ܗ̇ܘ ܩܠܒܼܐ ܥܬܝܩܐ ܘܫܪܘܝܐ.

2.4 ܐܘܡܢܘܬܐ ܕܟܬܒܼܬܐ
ܛܟܼܣܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܓܘ ܟܠܗ̇ ܒܪܝܬܐ ܫܩܠܗ ܠܦܘܣܘܥܬܗ ܓܘ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܒܝܕ ܪܫܡܬܐ ܕܨܘܪ̈ܝܬܐ ܡܬܥܒܪ̈ܢܐ ܗ̇.ܕ ܟܠ ܚܕܐ ܨܘܪܬܐ ܟܐ ܝܗܒܼܐ ܗܘܐ ܚܕ ܣܘܟܠܐ ܕܚܕ ܡܢܕܝ ܕܐܝܬܠܗ ܐܝܬܘܬܐ ܓܘ ܕܐܗܐ ܒܪܝܬܐ. ܘܒܐܘܪܚܐ ܕܡܪܟܒܼܬܐ ܕܨܘܪ̈ܝܬܐ ܠܚܕܕܐ ܟܐ ܡܨܐ ܗܘܐ ܒܪܢܫܐ ܠܡܡܛܘܝܐ ܬܚܡܢܬܗ ܘܡܐܡܪܗ ܩܐ ܐܚܪ̈ܢܐ. ܚܕܟܡܐ ܛܘܦ̮ܣܐ ܕܫܪܝܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ:       ܒܪܡܙܐ ܠܫܡܫܐ،       ܒܪܡܙܐ ܠܦܬܐ،
   
  ܒܪܡܙܐ ܠܬܝܬܐ ... ܘܫܪ. ܕܨܘܪ̈ܝܬܐ ܠܐܕܫ̈ܐ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܕܚـܝܘܬܐ ܒܗ̇ܘ ܙܒܼܢܐ. ܐܗܐ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܓܘ ܬܚܡܢܬܐ ܕܒܪܢܫܐ ܠܐ ܟܠܐܠܗ̇ ܠܐܟܼܐ ܐܝܢܐ ܪܚܫܠܗ̇ ܠܩܕܡܐ.
ܩܐ ܕܝܗܒܼܚ ܚܕܐ ܨܘܪܬܐ ܒܘܫ ܨܦܝܬܐ ܥܠ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܛܟܼܣܐ ܕܟܬܒܼܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܓܘ ܒܝܬܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ ܡܚܙܘܝܐ ܝܢܐ ܡܫܟ̰ܚܝܬܐ ܕܥܬܩ̈ܐ ܘܠܘܚ̈ܐ ܕܫܘܡܪ̈ܝܐ 4000 ܫܢ̈ܐ ܩ.ܡ ܟܐ ܡܦܠܚܝ ܗܘܘ ܨܘܪ̈ܝܬܐ. ܒܒܼܠܝܐ 3000 ܫܢ̈ܐ ܩ.ܡ ܒܪܐܠܗܘܢ ܩܠ̈ܐ ܒܫܘܦܐ ܕܐܢ̈ܐ ܨܘܪ̈ܝܬܐ ܒܕܘܡܝܐ ܕܨܨ̈ܐ (ܒܦܨܠܐ ܩܫܬܝܐ) ܘܡܢܝܢܝܗܝ ܝܗܘܘ ܗܠ 600 ܩܠ̈ܐ. ܐܬܘܪ̈ܝܐ 2000 ܫܢ̈ܐ ܩ.ܡ ܡܘܬܐܠܗܘܢ ܩܠ̈ܐ ܒܘܫ ܦܫܝܛ̈ܐ ܘܡܘܒܨܪܗܘܢ ܠܡܢܝܢܝܗܝ ܗܠ 300 ܩܠ̈ܐ ܒܕܘܡܝܐ ܕܨܨ̈ܐ (ܒܦܨܠܐ ܕܓܘܢܝܐ ܝܢ ܙܘܝܬܐ).
ܐܘܪܚܐ ܕܟܬܒܼܬܐ ܕܒܒܼܠܝ̈ܐ ܘܐܬܘܪ̈ܝܐ ܝܗܘܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܥܠܠ ܠܐܠܬܚܬ ܘܒܬܪ ܗܕܟܿ ܟܬܒܼܠܗܘܢ ܐܘܦܩܐܝܬ، ܓܗܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܣܡܠܐ ܠܝܡܝܢܐ ܘܓܗܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܝܡܝܢܐ ܠܣܡܠܐ ܘܨܘܪܬܐ ܕܐܠܬܚܬ ܡܚܙܘܝܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܠܫܘܚܠܦ̈ܐ ܡܘܕܟܼܪ̈ܐ ܒܥܠܠ.( ܬܫܥܝܬܐ ܕܣܦܪܝܘܬܐ ܐܬܘܪܝܬܐ ܣܦܪܐ ܬܪܝܢܐ)

ܐܗܐ ܫܘܚܠܦܐ ܓܘ ܨܘܪ̈ܝܬܐ ܘܩܠ̈ܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܥܒܼܪܗ ܒܚܕܐ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܒܘܫ ܓܘܪܬܐ ܘܐܠܨܝܬܐ ܒܕܪܐ 20 ܩ.ܡ ܐܘܦ ܐܬܐܠܗ ܠܐܝܬܘܬܐ ܚܕ ܣܕܪܐ ܕ 22 ܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ـ ܐܠܦ ܒܝܬ ـ ܬܐܘܡܐ ܐܘܕܘ ܒܟܬܒܼܐ ܝܠܗ ܕܦ̮ܝܢܝܩܝ̈ܐ ܡܘܕܝܢܗܘܢ ܠܐܢ̈ܐ ܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܒܫܢ݇ܬܐ 1500 ܩ.ܡ ܘܝܘܗܒܼܠܗܘܢ ܩܐ ܝܘܢܝ̈ܐ ܠܐܠܦ ܒܝܬ ܒܫܢ݇ܬܐ 1100 ܩ.ܡ.
ܒܒܝܬܦܠܓܐ ܩܕܡܝܐ ܕܕܪܐ 10 ܩ.ܡ ܚܕܪܝܐ ܐܠܦ ܒܝܬ ܦܫܠܗܘܢ ܡܘܦܠܚ̈ܐ ܒܐܡܘܬ̈ܐ ܕܐܣܝܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ، ܐܝܢܐ ܫܪܫܝܗܝ ܟܠܝܗܝ ܝܗܘܘ ܐܠܦ ܒܝܬ ܒܒܼܠܝܬܐ ـ ܐܬܘܪܝܬܐ ܘܒܐܠܬܚܬ ܡܚܙܘܝܐ ܝܘܚ ܠܚܕ ܠܘܚܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܐܠܦ ܒܝܬ ܓܘ ܐܬܪܐ ܕܐܬܘܪ ( ܬܫܥܝܬܐ ܕܣܦܪܝܘܬܐ ܐܬܘܪܝܬܐ ܣܦܪܐ ܬܪܝܢܐ).

ܠܘܚܐ 2
ܠܘܚܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܓܘ ܠܫܢܢ ܡ̣ܢ 4000 ـ 1500 ܫܢ̈ܐ ܩ.ܡ.

ܒܕܪܐ ܕܬܫܥܐ ܩ.ܡ ܥܒܼܪ̈ܝܐ ܡܘܦܠܚܠܗܘܢ ܠܐܠܦ ܒܝܬ ܐܬܘܪܝܬܐ ـ ܒܒܼܠܝܬܐ ܐܝܢܐ ܫܘܚܠܦܠܗܘܢ ܠܨܠܡܝܗܝ ܘܝܘܢܝ̈ܐ ܫܩܠܗܘܢ ܠܐܢ̈ܐ ܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܘܡܘܥܒܼܪܗܘܢ ܫܘܚܠܦ̈ܐ ܥܠ ܨܠܡܝܗܝ ܘܡܘܥܒܼܪܗܘܢ ܚܡܫܐ ܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܩܠܢ̈ܐ ܥܠܝܗܝ ܘܗܕܟܼܐ ܐܘܦ ܥܪ̈ܒܝܐ ܚܘܡܐܠܗܘܢ ܠܪܐܙܐ ܘܫܘܚܠܦܠܗܘܢ ܠܨܠܡܐ ܕܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܘܡܘܥܒܼܪܗܘܢ ܥܠܝܗܝ ܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܚܕܬܐ.
ܒܕܪܐ ܕܬܠܬܐ ܫܘܪܐܠܗ ܣܪܛܐ ܡܕܢܚܝܐ ܘܡܥܪܒܼܝܐ. ܒܕܪܐ ܕܬܡܢܝܐ ܦܫܠܗܘܢ ܡܘܬܒܼܐ ܙܘܥ̈ܐ ܓܘ ܠܫܢܐ ܥܪܒܝܐ. ܒܕܪܐ ܕܫܒܼܥܐ ܦܫܠܗܘܢ ܡܘܦܠܚ̈ܐ ܠܙܘܥ̈ܐ ܒܠܥܙܐ ܡܕܢܚܝܐ ܘܒܕܪܐ ܕܬܡܢܝܐ ܒܠܥܙܐ ܡܥܪܒܼܝܐ. ( ܬܫܥܝܬܐ ܕܣܦܪܝܘܬܐ ܐܬܘܪܝܬܐ ܣܦܪܐ ܬܪܝܢܐ)
3.4 ܛܟܼܣܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܓܘ ܒܝܬܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ
1.3.4 ܬܫܥܝܬܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܢ
ܒܐܠܬܚܬ ܡܚـܙܘܝܐ ܝܘܚ ܚܕܐ ܠܘܚܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܢ ܓܘ ܒܝܬܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ.


ܠܘܚܐ 3
ܒܚܙܝܐ ܝܘܚ ܓܘ ܕܐܗܐ ܠܘܚܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܫܡܝܐ ܦܠܝܓܼܐ ܝܠܗ ܠܐܪܒܥܐ ܡܢܬ̈ܐ:
1. ܦܥܘܐ ܡܕܢـܚـܝܐ ܦܝܫܐ ܝܗܘܐ ܝܕܥܝܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܐܟܕܢܝܐ ܘܦܝܫܐ ܝܗܘܐ ܡܘܦܠܚܐ ܒܐܬܘܪ̈ܝܐ ܘܒܒܼܠܝ̈ܐ. ܒܕܪܐ ܕܬܡܢܝܐ ܩ.ܡ ܦܥܘܐ ܡܕܢܚـܝܐ (ܠܘܚܐ 3) ܕܠܫܢܐ ܐܪܡܝܐ ܥܒܼܪܗ ܓܘ ܐܬܪܐ ܕܐܬܘܪ ܘܒܒܼܠ ܘܚـܒܼܛܠܗ ܒܠܫܢܐ ܐܟܕܢܝܐ ܘܦܠܛܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܗܘܐܠܗ ܠܫܢܐ ܐܪܡܘ ـ ܐܟܕܢܝܐ. ܐܗܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܦܝܫܐ ܝܗܘܐ ܗܘܡܙܡܐ ܒܝܕ ܟܢܫܐ ܕܐܬܘܪ ܘܒܒܼܠ ܘܠܫܢܐ ܐܟܕܢܝܐ ܕܐܬܘܪ̈ܝܐ ܡܘܦܠܚܐ ܓܘ ܟܬܒܼܝܬ̈ܐ ܪ̈ܘܫܡܝܐ. ܢܣܛܘܪ̈ܢܝܐ ܓܘ ܕܫܬܐ ܕܐܘܪܡܝ ܘܡܘܨܠ ܟܐ ܡܦܠܚـܝ ܚܕ ܠܫܢܐ ܩܪܝܐ ܣܘܕܝܐ ܘܐܗܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܪܒܐ ܦܪܝܫܐ ܝܠܗ ܡ̣ܢ ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝـܝܐ ܥܬܝܩܐ ܓܘ ܪܒܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܓܒܢ̈ܗ ܠܫܢܝ̈ܐ.
(ܓ. ܪ. ܒܵܝܪܹܐ ܦܪܘܦ̮ܣܘܪ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܫܝܡܝܐ)
(Encyc. Americana 1962 Vol.24 p549)
 ܦܪܘܦ̮ܝܣܘܪ ܘ. ܦ̮. ܐܠܦ̮ܪܝܬ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܫܝܡܝܐ ܓܘ ܒܝܬܨܘܒ̈ܐ ܕܓ̰ܘܢܣ ܗܦܟܢܣ ܒܟܬܒܼܐ ܝܠܗ ܠܫܢܐ ܐܟܕܢܝܐ ܡܘܦܠܚܐ ܓܘ ܠܘܚ̈ܐ ܐܚܪ̈ܝܐ ܕܒܒܼܠܝ̈ܐ ܝܠܗ ܚܕ ܠܫܢܐ ܚܒܼܝܛܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܠܫܢܐ ܐܪܡܝܐ ܘܐܟܕܢܝܐ. ܓܘ ܚܕܟܡܐ ܗܡܙܡܢ̈ܐ ܕܐܬܘܪ̈ܝܐ ܟܐ ܡܦܠܚـܝ ܗܘܘ ܠܩܠܐ ܕ (ܕ، ܩ، ܫ) ܡ̣ܢ ܓܒܐ ܕܩܠܐ ܕ (ܓ، ܣ، ܬ) ܕܒܒܼܠܝ̈ܐ ܩܐ ܛܘܦ̮ܣܐ: ܐܕܐܪ، ܩܬܘ، ܐܫܘܪ، ܟܕ ܒܒܼܠܝ̈ܐ ܟܐ ܪܬܡܝ ܗܘܘ ܠܐܢ̈ܐ ܡܠܠ̈ܐ ܐܬܐܪ، ܓܬܘ، (G. R. Dviver: Enc.Br. 1960, vol. 2, p.570)  ܐܣܘܪ.

2. ܦܥܘܐ ܓܪܒܝܝܐ: ܐܗܐ ܦܝܫܐ ܝܠܗ ܝܕܥܝܐ ܒܠܫܢܐ ܥܡܘܪܝܐ ܝܢ ܐܪܡܝܐ ܘܦܠܓܼܠܗ ܠܬܪܝ ܦܥܘ̈ܐ ܡܥܪܒܼܝܐ ܘܦܥܘܐ ܡܕܢܚܝܐ. ܦܥܘܐ ܡܕܢܚܝܐ ܥܒܼܪܗ ܓܘ ܒܝܬܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ ܘܚܒܼܛܠܗ ܒܠܫܢܐ ܐܟܕܢܝܐ ܘܡܢܝܗܝ ܦܠܛܠܗ ܠܫܢܐ ܐܪܡܘ ـ ܐܟܕܢܝܐ. ܦܥܘܐ ܡܕܢܚܝܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ ܥܬܝܩܐ ܡܘܦܠܚܐ ܒܡܥܪܒܼܐ ܕܦܪܬ ܘܦܫܠܗ ܩܪܝܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ. ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ ܦܠܓܼܠܗ ܠܬܪܝܢ ܠܥܙ̈ܐ، ܠܥܙܐ ܡܥܪܒܼܝܐ ܕܟܐ ܦܐܫ ܩܪܝܐ ܚܕܟܡܐ ܓܗ̈ܐ ܝܥܩܘܒܝܐ. ܠܥܙܐ ܡܕܢܚܝܐ ܕܦܫܠܗ ܡܘܦܠܚܐ ܓܘ ܒܝܬܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ ܘܦܝܫܐ ܝܠܗ ܝܕܥܝܐ ܒܠܫܢܐ ܐܘܪܗܝܐ، ܢܣܛܘܪܢܝܐ، ܣܦܪܝܐ ܥܬܝܩܐ( ܬܫܥܝܬܐ ܕܣܦܪܝܘܬܐ ܐܬܘܪܝܬܐ ܣܦܪܐ ܬܪܝܢܐ) . ܦܥܘܐ ܡܥܪܒܼܝܐ ܦܠܓܼܐ ܝܠܗ ܠܐܢ̈ܐ ܠܥܙ̈ܐ:
ܐ. ܠܥܙܐ ܕܐܘܪܝܬܐ، ܡܘܦܠܚܐ ܒܕܢܝܐܝܠ ܘܒܥܙܪܐ.
ܒ. ܠܥܙܐ ܕܬܪܓܘܡ، ܟܬܒܼܐ ܕܬܠܡܘܕ.
ܓ. ܠܥܙܐ ܫܡܪܝܐ ܗܘܡܙܡܐ ܒܛܝܦܐ ܫܡܪܝܐ
3. ܦܥܘܐ ܡܥܪܒܼܝܐ ܥܒܼܪܝܐ ܕܦܝܫܐ ܝܠܗ ܡܘܦܠܚܐ ܒܝܕ ܥܒܼܪ̈ܝܐ .
4. ܦܥܘܐ ܬܝܡܢܝܐ: ܫܝܡܝ̈ܐ ܕܦܝܫܠܗܘܢ ܓܘ ܥܪܒܣܬܢ ܡܘܦܠܚܠܗܘܢ ܚܕ ܠܥܙܐ ܦܪܝܫܐ ܕܦܫܠܗ ܩܪܝܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܥܪܒܝܐ ܘܐܗܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܪܒܐ ܡܘܕܝܢܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܠܫܢܐ ܐܪܡܝܐ.
ܠܘܚܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܟܬܒܼܐ ܕܣܦܪܝܘܬܐ ܐܬܘܪܝܬܐ ܘܡܐܙܠܬܐ ܕܒܪܢܫܘܬܐ ܡܚܙܘܝܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܕܡܨܐܠܗ ܒܗ̇ܝ ܐܚܪܝܬܐ ܐܗܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܠܡܬܘܒܼܐ ܩܐ ܓܢܗ ܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܩܠܢ̈ܐ ܘܫܠܝ̈ܐ ܘܒܢܝܬܐ ܕܡܠܠ̈ܐ ܘܨܘܪ̈ܥܦܝܗܝ ܘܡܪܟܒܼܬܐ ܕܦܬܓܼܡ̈ܐ ܘܡܐܡܪ̈ܐ.(1)
ܒܕܪܐ ܬܡܝܢܝܐ ܣܝܘܡ̈ܐ ܡܥܪ̈ܒܼܝܐ ܒܝܗܒܼܐ ܝܢܐ ܣܗܕܘܬ̈ܐ ܕܝܘܒܠܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܕܠܥܙܐ ܡܕܢܚـܝܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܐܪܡܝܐ ܥܒܼܪܗ ܓܘ ܐܬܪ̈ܘܬܐ ܕܐܬܘܪ ܘܒܒܼܠ ܘܚܒܼܛܠܗ ܒܠܫܢܐ ܐܟܕܢܝܐ ܘܦܠܛܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܡܙܓܼܬܐ ܗܘܐܠܗ ܚܕ ܠܫܢܐ ܚܕܬܐ، ܠܫܢܐ ܐܪܡܘ ـ ܐܟܕܢܝܐ ܘܐܗܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܦܫܠܗ ܠܫܢܐ ܕܗܡܙܡܬܐ ܘܦܪܡܝܬܐ ܕܟܠܗ ܐܬܪܐ. ܒܟܬܒܼܐ ܝܠܗ ܦܪܘܦ̮ܝܣܘܪ ܓ.ܪ ܒܵܝܪܹܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܫܝܡܝܐ:« ܢܣܛܘܪ̈ܢܝܐ ܥܡܪ̈ܢܐ ܕܕܫܬܐ ܕܐܘܪܡܝ، ܛܘܪ̈ܢܐ ܕܟܘܪܕܣܬܢ ܘܕܫܬܐ ܕܡܘܨܠ ܟܐ ܡܦܠܚـܝ ܚܕ ܠܫܢܐ ܩܪܝܐ ܣܘܕܝܐ. ܐܗܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܡܚܙܘܝܐ ܝܠܗ ܪܒܐ ܫܘܚܠܦ̈ܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ ܥܬܝܩܐ ܘܪܒܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܚܫܚܬ̈ܗ ܠܐ ܝܢܐ ܦܝܫܐ ܡܫܟ̰ܝܚܐ ܓܘ ܠܫܢܐ ܥܬܝܩܐ ܐܝܢܐ ܦܝܫܐ ܝܢܐ ܢܛܝܪ̈ܐ ܒܠܥܙ̈ܐ ܐܚܪ̈ܢܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܩܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܩܪܝـܚـܬܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܕܝܐ (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܦܪܝܐ ܕܩܐܡ) ܠܐ ܝܠܗ ܐܬܝܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ ܥܬܝܩܐ ܐܠܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܚܕ ܠܫܢܐ ܩܘܪܒܐ ܥܠܗ...» (2)
ܦܪܘܦ̮ܝܣܘܪ ܘ.ܦ. ܐܲܠܒܪܵܝܬ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܫܝܡܝܐ ܓܘ ܒܝܬܨܘܒ̈ܐ ܕܓ̰ܘܢܣ ܗܦܟܢܣ ܒܟܬܒܼܐ ܝܠܗ: « ܠܫܢܐ ܐܪܡܝܐ ܡܘܕܝܢܐ ܝܠܗ ܦܪܝܐܝܬ ܡ̣ܢ ܠܫܢܐ ܐܟܕܢܝܐ. ܡ̣ܢ ܒܬܪ 500 ܩ.ܡ ܠܫܢܐ ܐܟܕܢܝܐ ܦܝܫܠܗ ܡܘܦܠܚܐ ܓܘ ܟܬܝܒܼܝܬ̈ܐ ܪ̈ܘܫܡܝܐ ܕܒܒܼܠܝ̈ܐ. ܐܝܢܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܐܪܡܝܐ ܗܘܐܠܗ ܠܫܢܐ ܕܗܡܙܬܐ ܕܥܠܡܐ (ܣܘܕܝܐ). ܠܫܢܐ ܐܟܕܢܝܐ ܡܘܦܠܚܐ ܓܘ ܠܘܚ̈ܐ ܐܚܪ̈ܝܐ ܕܒܒܼܠܝ̈ܐ ܚܕ ܠܫܢܐ ܝܠܗ ܚܒܼܝܛܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܠܫܢܐ ܐܪܡܝܐـ ܐܟܕܢܝܐ» (3).
 ܐܣܝܐ ܦܐܪܐ ܣܪܡܣ ܓܘ ܣܦܪܐ ܬܪܝܢܐ ܕܣܦܪܝܘܬܐ ܐܬܘܪܝܬܐ ܒܫܢ݇ܬܐ 1969 ܡ ܒܟܬܒܼܐ ܝܠܗ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܐܪܡܘ ـ ܐܟܕܢܝܐ ܝܗܘܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܕܗܡܙܡܬܐ ܕܐܬܘܪ̈ܝܐ ܘܒܒܼܠܝ̈ܐ. ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܕܝܐ ܕܐܕܝܘܡ ܦܝܫܐ ܝܠܗ ܡܘܦܠܚܐ ܒܐܬܘܪ̈ܝܐ ܕܐܝܪܢ ܘܥܝܪܩ ܘܗ̇ܘ ܝܠܗ ܚܕ ܦܨܠܐ ܠܐ ܕܟܼܝܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܐܪܡܘ ـ ܐܟܕܢܝܐ. ܒܥܠܬܐ ܕܚـܝܬܐ ܕܥܡܢ ܬܚܘܬ ܫܘܠܛܢ̈ܐ ܕܥܡܡ̈ܐ ܐܚܪ̈ܢܐ ܡܘܕܝܢܐ ܝܠܗ ܪܒܐ ܚܫܚܬ̈ܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܕܐܢ̈ܐ ܥܡܡ̈ܐ، ܗܕܟܼܐ ܬܘܠܩܐ ܝܠܗ ܠܕܟܼܝܘܬܗ. ܠܐܟܼܐ ܚܬܝܬܐ ܝܘܚ ܘܡܨܚ ܕܐܡܪܚ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܕܝܐ ܢܒܼܝܥܐ ܝܠܗ ܡ̣ܢ ܠܫܢܐ ܐܬܘܪܝܐ (ܐܟܕܢܝܐ) ܘܚܫܚܬܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܘܫܪܝܪܬܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܕܦܐܫ ܩܪܝܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܐܬܘܪܝܐ.

(1) G.R Berry: Languages: Enc. Americana 1962.
(2) Encyl. Americana 1962 Vol.24, p.549
(3) Encyl. Americana 1962 Vol. 1

ܠܘܚܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܟܬܒܼܐ ܕܣܦܪܝܘܬܐ ܐܬܘܪܝܬܐ ܘܡܐܙܠܬܐ ܕܒܪܢܫܘܬܐ ܡܚܙܘܝܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܕܡܨܐܠܗ ܒܗ̇ܝ ܐܚܪܝܬܐ ܠܡܬܘܒܼܐ ܩܐ ܓܢܗ ܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܘܙܘܥ̈ܐ ܘܒܢܝܬܐ ܕܡܠܠ̈ܐ ܘܨܘܪ̈ܥܦܝܗܝ ܘܡܪܟܒܼܬܐ ܕܦܬܓܼܡ̈ܐ ܘܡܐܡܪ̈ܐ.
ܡܝܛܪܦܘܠܝܛܐ ܝܥܩܘܒ ܡܢܢܐ ܡܕܟܼܘܪܐ ܝܠܗ ܓܘ ܥܘܬܕܐ ܕܠܟܣܝܩܘܢܗ ܕܫܘܡܗܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ ܐܝܬܝܐ ܠܗ ܡ̣ܢ ܪܬܼܡܐ ܐܬܼܘܪܝܐ ܘܐܣܘܪܝܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܪܬܼܡܐ ܝܘܢܝ̈ܐ ܝܢ ܡܠܟܐ ܦܪܣܝܐ ܣܘܪܣ.
ܡܪܝ ܢܪܣܝ 437ـ507 ܓܘ ܡܫܘܚܬܗ ܒܠܒܠܬܐ ܕܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܡܦܠܘܚܐ ܝܠܗ ܫܘܡܗܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ (ܡ̣ܢ ܟܘܢܫܡܠܠ̈ܐ ܙܗܪܝܪܐ).
ܡܝܟܼܐܝܠ ܪܒܐ 1126ـ 1199 ܒܐܡܪܐ ܝܠܗ: ܐܬܘܪ̈ܝܐ، ܟܠܕܝ̈ܐ ܘܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ ܝܢܐ ܣܘܪ̈ܝܝܐ[/size]
[/font]





غير متصل عنكاوا دوت كوم

  • مشرف
  • عضو مميز متقدم
  • *
  • مشاركة: 33965
    • مشاهدة الملف الشخصي
    • البريد الالكتروني
رد: ܚܕ ܠܫܢܐ ܩܐ ܚܕܐ ܐܘ
« رد #1 في: 20:52 16/11/2005 »
ܬܐܘܡܐ ܐܘܕܘ ܡܕܟܼܘܪܐ ܝܠܗ ܕܡܠܬܼܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܫܚܠܦܬܐ ܕܥܒܼܕܠܗܘܢ ܝܘܢܝ̈ܐ ܘܦܪ̈ܣܝܐ ܠܫܡܐ ܐܬܼܘܪ ܘܐܫܘܪ. ܘܡܕܟܼܘܪܐ ܝܠܗ ܕܐܗܐ ܫܚܠܦܬܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܚܕ ܡ̣ܢܕܝ ܥܝܕܝܐ ܩܐ ܛܘܦ̮ܣܐ ܓܘ ܪܒܐ ܠܥܙ̈ܐ ܟܐ ܫܚܠܦܝ ܩܠ̈ܐ: ܫ، ܬ، ܬܼ ܡܐܝܟܿ ܟܬܝܬܐ، ܟܬܼܝܬܼܐ، ܟܣܝܣܐ، ܟܫܝܫܐ.
ܒܟܬܒܼܐ ܝܠܗ ܬܐܘܡܐ ܐܘܕܘ ܓܘ ܩܪ̈ܝܢܐ ܓܘܒܝ̈ܐ: ܡܘܚܫܚܠܢ ܐܦ ܕܚܪܙܚ ܒܐܗܐ ܟܬܒܼܐ ܚܕܟܡܐ ܩܪ̈ܝܢܐ ܟܪ̈ܝܐ ܕܬܫܥܝܬܐ ܕܡܠܬܢ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ ܘܒܐܡܪܐ ܝܠܗ ܩܐ ܬܠܡܝܕܗ ܝܠ̈ܐ ܙܥܘܪ̈ܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ ܝܢܐ (ܩܪ̈ܝܢܐ ܓܘܒܝ̈ܐ ܝܢܐ ܟܬܝܒܼ̈ܐ ܒܠܫܢܐ ܣܦܪܝܐ ܚܕܬܐ «ܦܘܠܘܣ ܕܢܚܐ»).
ܣܝܘܡ̈ܐ ܢܡܪܘܕ ܣܝܡܘܢܘ ܘܟܘܪܫ ܒܢܝܡܝܢ ܓܘ ܟܬܒܼܝܗܝ ܕܦܫܠܗ ܦܘܠܛܐ ܒܫܢ݇ܬܐ 1969 ܒܩܪܝܗ ܝܢܐ ܬܘܪܨܡܡܠܠܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܐ݇ܣܘܪܝܝܐ ܣܘܕܝܐ( ܟܠܝܗܝ ܐܬܪ̈ܘܬܐ ܠܫܢܝܗܝ ܝܠܗ ܠܫܢܐ ܕܗܡܙܡܬܐ ܐܝܢܐ ܟܐ ܦܝܫ ܩܪܝܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܚܕܬܐ «ܦܘܠܘܣ ܕܢܚܐ»).
4.4 ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܒܐܬܪ̈ܘܬܐ ܕܡܥܪܒܼܐ
ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܓܘ ܡܥܪܒܼܐ ܥܒܼܝܪܬܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܓܘ ܡܫܩܠ̈ܐ ܕܫܢܝܬܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܡܦܠܚܬܐ ܕܨܘܪ̈ܝܬܐ ܠܟܬܒܼܬܐ ܕܣܪ̈ܛܐ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܘܒܐܚܪܝܬܐ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܐܠܦܒܝܬ ܕܦܝܫܬܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܥܒܼܪܬܐ ܠܐܢ̈ܐ ܐܬܪ̈ܘܬܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܣܟܢܕܪ ܓܘܪܐ ܒܬܪ ܕܥܒܼܝܪܐ ܝܗܘܐ ܠܐܬܪܐ ܕܒܝܬܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ. ܒܝܕ ܫܚܠܦܬܐ ܕܨܘܪܬܐ ܕܐܬܘܬܐ ܘܡܥܒܼܪܬܐ ܕܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܩܠܢ̈ܐ ܕܡܨܐ ܒܪܢܫܐ ܟܬܒܼܠܗܘܢ ܘܩܪܐ ܠܗܘܢ ܒܒܫܝܛܘܬܐ ܘܩܪܝܚܘܬܐ. ܐܢ̈ܐ ܐܬܪ̈ܘܬܐ ܠܐ ܟܠܐ ܠܗܘܢ ܐܚܟ̰ܝ ܓܘ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܘܡܥܒܼܪܬܐ ܕܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܩܠܢ̈ܐ ܐܝܢܐ ܐܡܝܢܐܝܬ ܦܠܝـܚܐ ܝܢܐ ܘܒܦܠܚـܐ ܝܢܐ ܩܐ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܝ̈ܗܝ ܡ̣ܢ ܟܠܝܗܝ ܓܒܢ̈ܐ.
1.4.4 ܛܟܼܣܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ
ܐܗܐ ܠܘܚܐ ܡܚܙܘܝܐ ܠܢ ܠܨܠܡܐ ܕܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܕܦܝܫܐ ܝܗܘܘ ܡܘܦܠܚܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܕܪܐ 5 ـ11 ܡ
ܓܘ ܐܬܪܐ ܒܪܝܛܢܝܐ.
ܚܕܐ ܓܫܩܬܐ ܟܪܝܬܐ ܥܠ ܕܐܢ̈ܐ ܛܘܦ̮ܣ̈ܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܐܢܓܠܣܢܝܐ ܥܬܝܩܐ ܘܚܕܬܐ ܒܚܙܝܐ ܝܘܚ ܕܚܕ ܫܘܚܠܦܐ ܓܘܪܐ ܐܬܝܐ ܝܠܗ ܠܨܠܡܐ ܕܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ.
Anglo-Saxon Futhorc
A number of extra letters were added to the runic alphabet to write Anglo-Saxon/Old English. Runes were probably bought to Britain in the 5th century by the Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians (collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons), and were used until about the 11th century.
Runic inscriptions are mostly found on jewellery, weapons, stones and other objects. Very few examples of runic writing on manuscripts have survived. 
The ur looks a little like ^,  eoth [sedge] x, tiw [tuesday], and ing are gods.  snake is sun S
I is ice pronounced ees, 


]
2.4.4 ܫܚܠܦـܬܐ ܕܡܥܪܒܼܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܠܫܢܐ ܥܬܝܩܐ ܠܚܕܬܐ.
ܒܐܠܬܚܬ ܒܝܗܒܼܐ ܝܘܚ ܚܕܟܡܐ ܛܘܦ̮ܣ̈ܐ ܥܠ ܫܘܚܠܦܐ ܕܗܘܐܠܗ ܥܠ ܠܫܢܐ ܓܘ ܡܥܪܒܼܐ.

[/center]

ܚܕܐ ܓܫܩܬܐ ܟܪܝܬܐ ܥܠ ܕܐܢ̈ܐ ܛܘܦ̮ܣ̈ܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܥܬܝܩܐ ܘܚܕܬܐ ܒܚܙܝܐ ܝܘܚ ܕܚܕ ܫܘܚܠܦܐ ܓܘܪܐ ܐܬܝܐ ܝܠܗ ܠܨܠܡܐ ܕܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ، ܕܚܫܚܬ̈ܐ ܘܡܐܡܪ̈ܐ ܘܐܗܐ ܫܘܚܠܦܐ ܠܐ ܝܠܗ ܟܠܝܐ ܐܝܢܐ ܐܡܝܢܐܝܬ ܝܠܗ ܓܘ ܒܘܨܝܐ ܡܛܠ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܛܟܼܣܐ ܕܟܬܒܼܬܐ، ܡܡܠܠܐ، ܬܘܪܨܡܡܠܠܐ ܘܡܥܒܼܪܬܐ ܕܚܫܚܬ̈ܐ ܚܕܬ̈ܐ ܠܚــܝܡ̈ܐ ܥܡ ܬܚܡܢـܝـܬ̈ܐ ܚܕܬ̈ܐ ܘܕܪ̈ܝܐ ܕܥܡܡ̈ܐ ܡܕܝܢܝ̈ܐ ܘܫܘܘܫܛ̈ܐ.

3.4.4 ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܘܟܢܘܫܝܐ
ܒܕܪܐ 18 ܒܬܪ ܕܐܬܪܐ ܕܝܘܢܢ ܦܝܫܐ ܝܗܘܐ ܚܐܪܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܬܚܘܬ ܡܫܠܛܢܘܬܐ ܕܐܘܬܼܡܢـܝ̈ܐ ܒܗܘܝܐ ܝܠܗ ܠܥܙܐ ܕܗܡܙܡܬܐ ܗ̇ܘ ܠܫܢܐ ܪܘܫܡܝܐ ܕܟܬܒܼܬܐ ܘܥܡܐ ܝܘܢـܝܐ ܡܨܐܠܗ ܕܟܦܫ ܠܠܥܙ̈ܐ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܓܘ ܚܕ ܠܫܢܐ ܡܚـܘܝܕܐ ܕܦܫܠܗ ܗ̇ܘ ܠܫܢܐ ܪܘܫܡܝܐ ܩܐ ܟܠܗ ܥܡܗ.
ܕܐܢܬܝ ܒܝܠ 1205 ـ 1321 ܒܪܐܠܗ ܚܕ ܠܫܢܐ ܚܕܬܐ ܕܟܬܒܼܬܐ ܘܣܦܪܝܘܬܐ ܡܛܠ ܚـܘܝܕܐ ܦܘܠܝܛܝܩܝܐ ܕܐܝܛܠܝܐ ܘܒܩܪܝܐ ܝܠܗ ܠܫܢܐ ܕܥܡܐ ܘܒܫܡܐ ܕܥܡܐ  (Italiano) ܘܫܒܼܩܠܝܗܝ ܠܫܢܐ ܠܬܝܢܝܐ ܕܝܗܘܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܪܘܫܡܝܐ ܕܟܬܒܼܬܐ.
ܒܬܪ ܕܪܐ 10ܥܡܐ ܦ̮ܪܢܣܝܐ ܫܘܪܐ ܠܗ ܠܫܩܠܐ ܠܥܙܐ ܕܗܡܙܘܡܐ ܝܗܘܐ ܥܡܐ ܒܝܗ ܘܦܫܠܗ ܠܫܢܐ ܪܘܫܡܝܐ ܕܟܬܒܼܬܐ ܘܫܩܠܗ ܫܡܐ ܕܥܡܐ ܦ̮ܪܢܣܝܐ.
ܠܫܢܐ ܠܬܝܢܝܐ ܗܠ ܦܪܩܬܐ ܕܕܪܐ ܡܨܥܝܐ ܝܗܘܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܪܘܫܡܝܐ ܕܟܬܒܼܬܐ ܓܘ ܡܥܪܒܼܐ ܩܐ ܛܘܦ̮ܣܐ ܢܝܘܬܢ، ܓܠܝܠܝ، ܕܣܟܪܕ، ܠܝܢܐܝ ܟܠܝ ܥܒܼܕܝܬܝ̈ܗܝ ܓܘܪ̈ܐ ܝܗܘܘ ܒܠܫܢܐ ܠܬܝܢܝܐ.
ܠܫܢܐ ܐܢܓܠܣܢܝܐ ܥܒܼܪܗ ܓܘ ܡܫܩܠܐ ܕܫܢـܝـܬܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܠܫܢܐ ܠܬܝܢܝܐ ܠܠܫܢܐ ܚܕܬܐ ܒܦܪܩܬܐ ܕܕܪܐ ܡܨܥܝܐ ܘܚܕ ܡ̣ܢ ܥܠܠ̈ܐ ܡܥܒܕܢ̈ܐ ܠܕܐܗܐ ܫܢܝܬܐ ܝܗܘܐ ܕܐܒܼܢܓܠܝ̈ܐ ܒܥܐ ܠܗܘܢ ܕܡܟܪܙܝ ܩܐ ܥܡܝܗܝ ܩܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܥܠܬܐ ܠܐ ܝܗܘܐ ܡܬܗܘܝܢܬܐ ܩܐ ܕܡܨܝ ܗܘܘ ܠܡܟܪܘܙܐ ܒܠܫܢܐ ܥܬܝܩܐ ܗܕܟܼܐ ܫܘܪܐ ܠܗܘܢ ܪܒܐ ܟܬܒܼ̈ܐ ܒܝܕ ܡܦܠܚܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܕܗܡܙܡܐ ܐܦ ܓܘ ܟܬܒܼܝܬܝܗ̈ܝ.
ܒܚـܙܝܐ ܝܘܚ ܬܚܘܬ ܡܫܠܛܢܘܬܐ ܕܐܠܝܙܒܝܬܼ ܐ ܒܝܠ 1558ـ1603 ܫܘܪܐܠܗ ܠܫܢܐ ܕܐܢܓܠܣ ܫܠܛܘܢܐ. ܟܬܒܼܐ ܩܕܝܫܐ ܦܫܠܗ ܦܘܫܩܐ ܠܠܫܢܐ ܐܢܓܠܣܢܝܐ ܒܫܢ݇ܬܐ 1530 ܘܐܨܚܬܐ ܪܘܫܡܝܬܐ ܦܪܣܠܗ̇ ܒܫܢ݇ܬܐ 1611.  ܘܒܫܢ݇ܬܐ 1660ـ1688 ܝܗܘܐ ܥܕܢܐ ܕܫܩܠܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܕܟܬܒܼܬܐ ܕܐܢܓܠܣ ܪܘܫܡܝܘܬܐ.
 ܘܬܚܘܬ ܫܘܠܛܢܐ ܕܐܠܝܙܒܝܬܼ ܒ 1952 ܝܗܘܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܕܐܢܓܠܣ ܠܫܢܐ ܕܗܡܙܡܐ ܘܟܬܒܼܬܐ 250 ܡܠܝܘܢ̈ܐ.

5. ܕܘܪ̈ܫܐ ܘܫܪ̈ܝܬܐ
ܚܕܐ ܓܫܩܬܐ ܟܪܝܬܐ ܘܓܕܝܡܬܐ ܥܠ ܡܐܙܠܬܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܢ ܡܥܠ ܬܫܥܝܬܐ ܘܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܐܚܪܢܐ ܓܘ ܡܥܪܒܼܐ ܕܐܕܝܘܡ ܡܛܝܐ ܝܢܐ ܠܚܕ ܕܪܓܼܐ ܥܠܝܐ ܓܘ ܡܫܩܠ̈ܐ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܕܬܩܢܘܬܐ ܘܡܪܕܘܬܐ ܘܣܦܪܝܘܬܐ ܥܠܝܬܐ ܡܨܚ ܓܕܡܚ ܠܗܘܢ ܓܘ ܕܐܢ̈ܐ ܢܘܩܙ̈ܐ:
1.5 ܥܠܠ̈ܐ ܡܪ̈ܝܡܢܐ
ܐ. ܐܝܡܢ ܕܡܢܬ̈ܐ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܕܚܕ ܥܡܐ ܒܩܒܠܐ ܝܢܐ ܘܒܩܪܝܐ ܝܢܐ ܓܢܝܗܝ ܘܠܫܢܝܗܝ ܒܫܡܢ̈ܐ ܕܘܟܬܢܝ̈ܐ ܘܥܕܬܢܝ̈ܐ ܘܡܢܫܘܝܐ ܝܢܐ ܠܫܡܝܗܝ ܘܠܫܢܝܗܝ ܥܡܝܐ ܐܘܡܬܢܝܐ، ܝܠܗ̇ ܡ̣ܢ ܥܠܬܐ ܕܠܐ ܡܨܝܬܐ ܕܙܘܥܐ ܡܪܕܘܬܢܝܐ ܐܘܡܬܢܝܐ ܠܦܪܣܐ ܣܘܟܠܐ ܐܘܡܬܢܝܐ ܥܡܝܐ ܡܚـܘܝܕܐ ܘܚܘܕܬܗ ܡܛܠ ܡܕܒܼܩܬܗ ܥܡ ܐܝܟܢܝܘܬܐ ܚܕܬܐ ܕܒܚـܝܐ ܝܢܐ ܐܢ̈ܐ ܩܘܒܘܚـܝܬ̈ܐ ܓܘ ܦܢܝܬ̈ܐ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܗܕܟܼܐ ܒܚܙܝܐ ܝܘܚ ܒܪܝܬܐ ܕܥܡܡ̈ܐ ܚܕܬ̈ܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܕܐܢ̈ܐ ܠܥܙ̈ܐ ܕܘܟܬܢܝ̈ܐ ܕܦܢܝܬ̈ܐ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܓܘ ܡܕܢܚܐ ܘܡܥܪܒܼܐ.

ܒ. ܬܫܥܝܬܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܡܚـܙܘܝܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܩܐ ܠܢ ܕܠܥܙ̈ܐ ܕܚܕ ܠܫܢܐ ܐܝܡܢ ܕܪ̈ܚܩܘܢܐ ܝܢܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܚܕܕܐ ܓܘ ܐܣܘܪ̈ܐ ܐܩܢܘܡܝـܝ̈ܐ، ܟܢܘܫܝـܝ̈ܐ، ܪ̈ܘܚـܢܝܐ، ܦܘܠܝܛܝܩܝ̈ܐ ܘܓ̰ܝܘܓܪ̈ܦ̮ܝـܝܐ ܟܠ ܠܥܙܐ ܒܗܘܝܐ ܝܠܗ ܠܫܢܐ ܠܚܘܕܗ ܘܐܗܐ ܒܚـܙܝܐ ܝܘܚ ܓܘ ܥܡܢ ܕܠܥܙ̈ܐ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܒܫܩܠܐ ܝܢܐ ܢܝـܚܐ ܒܢܝـܚܐ ܫܘܦܐ ܕܚܕ ܠܫܢܐ ܘܗܕܟܼܐ ܐܦ ܠܥܙ̈ܐ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܕܥܡܡ̈ܐ ܓܘ ܡܥܪܒܼܐ ܒܫܩܠܐ ܝܢܐ ܫܘܦܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܠܬܝܢܝܐ ܘܒܗܘܝܐ ܝܢܐ ܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܡܚܕܕܐ ܡܛܠ ܕܐܗܐ ܝܠܗ ܢܡܘܣܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ  ܘܫܘܘܫܛܐ ܟܝܢܝܐ.

ܓ. ܠܐ ܡܨܝܬܐ ܕܚܕ ܥܡܐ ܝܢ ܐܘܡܬܐ ܠܚܕܘܬܐ ܠܠܫܢܗ̇ ܒܚܩܠ̈ܐ ܕܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ، ܕܚܫܚܬ̈ܐ ܘܬܘܪܨܡܡܠܠܐ ܕܗܘܝ ܡܘܕܒܼܩ̈ܐ ܥܡ ܬܚܡܢܐ ܘܪܓܫܼܐ ܕܗ̇ܘ ܥܡܐ. ܘܕܡܨܐ ܗ̇ܘ ܠܫܢܐ ܦܪܘܩܐ ܓܢܗ ܓܘ ܟܠܝܗܝ ܢܩܝܦܘܬ̈ܐ ܡܥܠ ܡܐܙܠܬܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܘܡܕܝܢܝܘܬܐ ܓܘ ܕܐܗܐ ܒܪܝܬܐ ܝܢ ܬܒܼܝܠ، ܗ̇ܘ ܥܡܐ ܛܠܘܩܐ ܝܠܗ ܠܫܢܗ ܘܡܪܕܘܬܗ ܘܢܝـܚܐ ܒܢܝـܚܐ ܒܦܫܪܐ ܝܠܗ ܓܘ ܐܡܘܬ̈ܐ ܐܚܪ̈ܢܐ ܘܐܗܐ ܒܓܕܫܐ ܝܠܗ ܥܠ ܥܡܢ. ܒܚܙܝܐ ܝܘܚ ܒܩܪܝܚܘܬܐ ܒܪܝܬܐ ܕܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܣܘܪ̈ܝܝܐ ܘܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܡܕܢܚـܝ̈ܐ ܕܒܪܚܩܐ ܝܢܐ ܐܢ̈ܐ ܬܪ̈ܝܢ ܠܥܙ̈ܐ ܡܚܕܕܐ(ܠܘܚܐ 2). ܒܕܪܐ 19 ܫܘܢܐܠܗܘܢ ܗܡܙܡܢ̈ܐ ܕܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܠܠܫܢܐ ܕܗܡܙܡܬܐ (ܣܘܕܝܐ) ܐܝܢܐ ܐܘܦ ܐܗܐ ܗܘܐܠܗ̇ ܡ̣ܢ ܬܚܡܢܬܐ ܣܘܥܪܢܝܬܐ ܕܡܟܪ̈ܙܢܐ ܐܡܪ̈ܝܟܝܐ ܕܡܨܝ ܗܘܘ ܗܡܙܡܝ  ܗܘܘ ܘܟܬܒܼܝ ܗܘܘ ܒܠܫܢܐ ܕܥܡܐ ܕܦܪܡܘܝܐ ܝܠܗ ܘܣܟܘܠܐ. ܐܗܐ ܦܣܘܥܬܐ ܗܘܐܠܗ ܡܪܝܡܢܬܐ ܠܫܘܝܐ ܕܚܘܝܕܐ ܕܠܫܢܢ ܘܐܘܡܬܢ ܡܛܠ ܬܒܥܢ̈ܐ ܕܥܕܬܐ ܟܠܕܝܬܐ ܘܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ ܦܫܠܗܘܢ ܡܦܠܘܚܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ ܥܬܝܩܐ (ܐܪܡܝܐ) ܘܗܡܙܡܢ̈ܐ ܕܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܘܚܕܐ ܡܢܬܐ ܕܡܘܪ̈ܕܢܐ ܥܒܼܪܗܘܢ ܓܘ ܡܕܪܫܬܐ ܚܕܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܡܛܠ ܚܡܝܬܐ ܕܡܐܙܠܬܐ ܕܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܢ ܘܣܦܪܝܘܬܢ ܩܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܥܠܬܐ ܒܚܙܝܐ ܝܘܚ ܕܗܡܙܡܢ̈ܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܠܥܙܐ ܒܡܨܝܐ ܝܢܐ ܠܦܪܘܩܐ ܓܢܝ̈ܗܝ ܒܚܩܠ̈ܐ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܕܚـܝܘܬܐ، ܐܝܢܐ ܗܡܙܡܢ̈ܐ ܕܥܕܬܐ ܟܠܕܝܬܐ ܘܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ ܒܥܠܬܐ ܕܠܐ ܫܢܝܬܐ ܠܠܫܢܐ ܚܕܬܐ ܣܓܝܐܝܘܬܝܗܝ ܡܦܠܘܚܐ ܝܢܐ ܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܢܘܟܼܪ̈ܝܐ ܕܒܚـܝܐ ܝܢܐ ܥܡܝܗܝ ܡܛܠ ܕܐܢ̈ܐ ܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܒܘܫ ܦܫܝܛ̈ܐ ܘܡܘܕܒܼܩ̈ܐ ܝܢܐ ܥܡ ܪ̈ܓܼܫܝܗܝ ܘܬܚܡܢܝܬ̈ܗܝ ܘܐܗܐ ܡܘܥܒܼܕܠܗ̇ ܪܚܩܢܬܐ ܕܐܢ̈ܐ ܠܥܙ̈ܐ ܡܚܕܕܐ ܘܐܢ ܡܬܒܼܚܠܗ̇ ܐܗܐ ܐܝܟܢܝܘܬܐ ܓܘ ܡܐܣܬܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܟܠ ܠܥܙܐ ܒܗܘܝܐ ܝܠܗ ܠܫܢܐ ܠܚܘܕܗ ܡܛܠ ܦܪܡܝܬܐ ܘܣܟܠܬܐ ܕܐܢ̈ܐ ܩܘܒܘܚـܝܬ̈ܐ ܠܚܕܕܐ ܪܚܩܘܢܐ ܝܠܗ̇.

ܕ. ܒܥܠܬܐ ܕܐܝܬܘܬܐ ܕܙܘܥܐ ܕܛܠܘܡܝܐ ܕܒܘܫ ܗܘܝܐ ܝܠܗ ܚـܝܠܢܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܙܘܥܐ ܐܘܡܬܢܝܐ ܕܐܝܬܠܗ ܚܕܐ ܓܫܩܬܐ ܚܕܢܝܬܐ ܟܠܢܝܬܐ ܩܐ ܠܫܢܢ ܘܐܘܡܬܢ ܘܒܥܠܬܐ ܕܒܢ̈ܝ ܐܘܡܬܢ ܠܐ ܝܢܐ ܡܨܝܐ ܕܫܬܐܣܝ ܙܘܥ̈ܐ ܐܘܡܬܢܝ̈ܐ ܡܪ̈ܐ ܪ̈ܢܝܐ ܓܡܝܪ̈ܐ ܒܚܒܼܫܐ ܟܠܝܗܝ ܩܘܒܘܚܝܬ̈ܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܐܘܡܬܐ ܒܘܪܒܙܬܐ ܘܒܥܠܬܐ ܕܡܪ̈ܕܘܬ̈ܐ ܕܘܟܬܢܝ̈ܐ ܘܥܕܬܢܝ̈ܐ ܕܠܐ ܝܢܐ ܚܠܝܨܐ ܘܠܐ ܫܪܝܪ̈ܐ ܩܐ ܢܝܫܐ ܕܚـܝܕܬܐ ܘܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܢ ܐܘܡܬܢܝܐ ܡܐܙܠܬܢ ܐܘܡܬܢܝܬܐ ܟܠܝܬܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܘܒܕܥܪܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܠܒܬܪܐ.

ܗ. ܐܝܡܢ ܕܚܕ ܥܡܐ ܒܫܠܡܐ ܝܠܗ ܠܬܚܡܢܝܬ̈ܐ ܕܡܫܠܛܢ̈ܐ ܘܠܐ ܝܠܗ ܒܡܨܝܐ ܠܡܦܪܘܡܐ ܘܒܐܣܪܐ ܠܫܢܗ ܘܡܪܕܘܬܗ ܘܡܕܝܢܝܘܬܗ ܥܡ ܚܕܐ ܡܢܬܐ ܐܠܨܝܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܘܡܪܕܘܬܐ ܘܡܕܝܢܝܘܬܐ ܕܥܡܐ ܡܫܘܠܛܢܐ ܘܥܡܡ̈ܐ ܓܘ ܬܒܼܝܠ ܗܕܟܼܐ ܗ̇ܘ ܥܡܐ ܒܦܪܩܐ ܝܠܗ ܡ̣ܢ ܕܪܓܘܫܬܐ ܕܡܬܛܪܢܘܬܐ ܘܫܘܘܫܛܐ ܘܒܦܝܫܐ ܝܠܗ ܐܚܟ̰ܝ ܚܕ ܥܬܩܐ ܘܡܒܘܥܐ ܕܐܝܬܠܗܘܢ ܚܘܒܐ ܕܒܘܨܝ̈ܐ ܥܠ ܬܫܥܝܬܐ ܕܡܪ̈ܕܘܬܐ ܘܐܗܐ ܒܫܪܪܐ ܒܓܕܫܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܥܠ ܠܫܢܢ ܘܡܪܕܘܬܢ ܐܢ ܒܫܪܪܐ ܒܢـܚ ܫܪ̈ܝܬܢ ܘܗܓܝܬ̈ܢ ܥܠ ܬܐܘܪ̈ܝܐ ܘܕܪ̈ܫܐ ܝܘܠܦܢܝ̈ܐ ܥܠܡܝ̈ܐ.
ܘ. ܐܝܡܢ ܕܒܒܪܝܐ ܝܢܐ ܫܘܬܐܣ̈ܐ ܟܢܘܫܝܬ̈ܐ ܘܦܘܠܝܛܝܩܝ̈ܐ ܐܣܝܪ̈ܐ ܒܝܕ ܡܪ̈ܕܘܬܐ ܕܘܟܬܢܝ̈ܐ ܘܗܢܝܢ̈ܐ ܕܩܘܒܘܚـܝܬ̈ܐ ܘܦܪ̈ܨܘܦܐ ܡܦܪܘܝܐ ܝܢܐ ܐܣܛܘܟܼܣ̈ܐ ܘܥܡܠ̈ܐ ܕܪܚܩܢܬܐ ܕܩܘܒܘܚـܝܬ̈ܐ ܡܚـܕܕ̈ܐ ܘܒܪܝܬܐ ܕܠܫܢ̈ܐ، ܡܪ̈ܕܘܬܐ ܘܒܐܚܪܬܐ ܥܡܡ̈ܐ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܡܚܕܕܐ. ܘܐܗܐ ܒܚܙܝܐ ܝܘܚ ܓܘ ܐܘܡܬܢ ܡ̣ܢ ܟܢܘܫܝܬ̈ܐ ܘܓܒ̈ܐ ܓܘ ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ، ܥܕܬܐ ܕܟܠܕܝ̈ܐ ܘܥܕܬܐ ܕܣܘܪ̈ܝܝܐ ܟܕ ܟܠܝܗܝ ܓܒ̈ܢ ܘܫܘܬܐܣ̈ܢ ܡܪ̈ܕܘܬܢܝܐ ܟܢܘܫܝـܝ̈ܐ ܒܢܝܐ ܝܢܐ ܥܠ ܕܐܢ̈ܐ ܐܣ̈ܐ ܘܓܘ ܩܘܒܘܚـܝܬ̈ܐ ܕܡܥܠ ܙܒܼܢܐ ܒܪܚܩܐ ܝܢܐ ܡܚܕܕܐ ܘܠܐ ܐܚܟ̰ܝ ܐܗܐ ܐܝܢܐ ܣܓܝ ܡ̣ܢ ܣܝܥܬ̈ܐ ܕܐܢ̈ܐ ܩܘܒܘܚـܬܐ ܠܝܬܠܗܘܢ ܬܘܠܡܕܐ ܕܠܫܢ̈ܝ ܘܡܪܕܘܬܝܗܝ ܐܘܡܬܢܝܬܐ.

2.5 ܥܠܠ̈ܐ ܡܣܝܡܢ̈ܐ
ܚܕ ܠܫܢܐ ܚـܝܐ ܝܠܗ ܓܘ ܐܡܝܢܘܬܐ ܕܫܘܚܠܦܐ ܠܓܒܐ ܕܦܫܝܛܘܬܐ ܘܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܡܨܐ ܥܒܼܪ ܓܘ ܦܘܚܡܐ ܕܬܘܪܨܡܡܠܠܐ، ܗܘܓܝܐ، ܚܫܚܬ̈ܐ ܘܪܬܼܡܐ. ܐܝܡܢ ܕܒܐܡܪܐ ܝܘܚ ܕܚܕ ܐ݇ܢܫܐ ܝܕܥ ܚܕ ܠܫܢܐ ܡܥܢܝܗ ܝܠܗ̇ ܕܡܨܐ ܗ̇̇ܘ ܐ݇ܢܫܐ ܩܪܝܬܐ ܘܟܬܒܼܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܘܝܕܥ ܪܒܐ ܚܫܚܬ̈ܐ ܕܡܨܐ ܡܦܠܚܠܗܘܢ ܓܘ ܡܡܠܠܗ ܥܡ ܐܚܪ̈ܢܐ.
ܢܝܫܐ ܕܚܕ ܠܫܢܐ ܝܠܗ ܕܗܘܐ ܡܨܥܝܐ ܓܘ ܫܩܠܬܐ ܘܝܗܒܼܠܬܐ ܒܓܡܝܪܘܬܐ ܥܡ ܗܕܡ̈ܐ ܕܟܢܘܫܝܗ.
ܗ̇ܘ ܠܫܢܐ ܕܡܨܝܐ ܝܠܗ ܟܠܝܐ ܩܕܡ ܥܠܥܠ̈ܐ ܘܠܦ̈ܐ ܕܙܒܼܢܐ ܘܟܘܬܫܗ ܡܛܠ ܐܝܬܘܬܗ ܘܐܡܝܢܘܬܗ ܝܠܗ ܗ̇ܘ ܕܡܨܝܐ ܝܠܗ:
ܐ. ܩܪܒܢܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܕܟܬܒܼܬܐ ܠܠܥܙ̈ܐ ܕܗܡܙܡܬܐ ܓܘ ܚـܫܚـܬ̈ܗ (ܒܢܬܩܠܗ)، ܓܘ ܡܐܡܪܗ ܘܓܘ ܬܘܪܨܡܡܠܠܗ ܘܐܗܐ ܒܚܙܝܐ ܝܘܚ ܓܘ ܠܫܢܐ ܕܣܘܪܬ ܚܕܬܐ (ܣܘܕܝܐ) ܘܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܓܘ ܡܥܪܒܼܐ ܕܫܘܢܝ̈ܐ ܝܢܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܠܫܢܝܗܝ ܠܬܝܢܝܐ ܥܬܝܩܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܕܗܡܙܡܬܐ ܕܥܡܝܗܝ ܘܒܚܙܝܐ ܝܘܚ ܒܥܠܠ ܓܘ ܟܠܗ̇ ܬܫܥܝܬܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܘܫܘܘܫܛܐ ܕܐܢ̈ܐ ܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܚܕܬ̈ܐ ܒܫܩܠܐ ܝܢܐ ܫܘܦܐ ܒܟܠܝܗܝ ܚܩܠ̈ܐ ܕܬܩܢܘܬܐ، ܡܪܕܘܬܐ ܘܣܦܪܝܘܬܐ ܓܘ ܕܐܢ̈ܐ ܐܬܪ̈ܘܬܐ ܡܛܠ ܕܐܢ̈ܐ ܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܝܢܐ ܦܠܛܐ ܟܝܢܝܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܕܒܪܢܫܘܬܐ ܓܘ ܒܪܝܬܐ.

ܒ. ܡܥܒܼܪܬܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܥܠ ܛܟܼܣܐ ܕܟܬܒܼܬܐ ܘܐܬܘܬ̈ܗ ܩܠܝ̈ܐ ܘܫܠܝ̈ܐ(ܫܬܝܩ̈ܐ) ܕܗܘܐ ܒܘܫ ܦܫܝܛܐ ܘܡܬܛܘܪܢܐ ܥܡ ܣܢܝܩܘܬ̈ܐ ܕܥܡܐ ܕܗܡܙܘܡܐ ܝܠܗ ܒܝܗ ܘܗܘܐ ܦܫܝܛܐ ܩܐ ܥܡܡ̈ܐ ܢܘܟܼܪ̈ܝܐ ܩܐ ܝܠܦܬܗ. ܒܚܙܝܐ ܝܘܚ ܐܝܡܢ ܕܥܒܼܪܗܘܢ ܙܘܥ̈ܐ ܥܠ ܠܫܢܢ ܒܕܪܐ 7 ـ 8 ܗܘܐܠܗ ܒܘܫ ܦܫܝܛܐ ܩܐ ܩܪܝܬܐ. ܐܗܐ ܫܘܚܠܦܐ ܓܘ ܡܥܒܼܪܬܐ ܕܙܘܥ̈ܐ ܥܠ ܠܫܢܢ ܠܐ ܗܘܐܠܗ ܡܠܝܢܐ ܩܐ ܥܒܼܕܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܓܡܝܪܐ ܓܘ ܩܪܝܬܐ ܘܟܬܒܼܬܐ. ܐܝܢܐ ܒܗܦܟܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܒܚܙܝܐ ܝܘܚ ܐܬܪ̈ܘܬܐ ܕܡܥܪܒܼܐ ܡܨܐܠܗܘܢ ܠܡܥܒܼܪܬܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܘܫܘܚܠܦܐ ܓܘ ܨܠܡܐ ܕܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܘܡܢܝܢܝܗܝ ܘܡܥܒܼܪܬܐ ܕܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܩܠܢ̈ܐ ܕܗܘܐ ܚܕ ܠܫܢܐ ܓܡܝܪܐ ܘܡܨܐ ܩܝܡ ܒܘܠܝܬܗ ܥܡ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܘܡܐܙܠܬܐ ܕܡܕܝܢܝܘܬܐ ܓܘ ܬܒܼܝܠ. ܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܓܘ ܕܡܥܪܒܼܐ ܠܐ ܐܚܟ̰ܝ ܠܐ ܟܠܐܠܗܘܢ ܠܐܢܝ ܩܠܒܼܝܗܝ ܥܬܝܩ̈ܐ ܐܝܢܐ ܫܘܚܠܦܗܘܢ ܗܘܐܠܗܘܢ ܐܡܝܢܝ̈ܐ ܡܥܠ ܬܫܥܝܬܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܐܢ̈ܐ ܥܡܡ̈ܐ ܡܐܝܟܿ ܕܒܚܙܝܐ ܝܘܚ ܓܘ ܠܘܚ̈ܐ (7 ـ 11)

3.5 ܠܫܢܐ ܓܡܝܪܐ ܘܡܚـܘܝܕܐ
ܚܕܐ ܓܫܩܬܐ ܓܕܝܡܬܐ ܥܠ ܐܬܘܬ̈ܢ ܘܙܘܥܝ̈ܗܝ ܒܚـܙܝܐ ܝܘܢ ܕܐܝܬܠܢ 22 (29 ܨܠܡ̈ܐ) ܨܠܡ̈ܐ ܕܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ:
ܐ ܒ ܓ ܕ ܗ ܘ ܙ ܚ ܛ ܝ ܟـܟ ܟ ܠ ܡـܡ ܢـܢ ܢ ܣ ܥ ܦ ܨ ܩ ܪ ܫ ܬ ـܬܐ
ܫܒܼܥܐ ܙܒܼܥ̈ܐ: ـܵ ـܲ ـܹ ـܸ ܘܿ ܘܼ ܝܼ
ܐ ܒ ܓ ܕ ܗ ܘ ܙ ܚ ܛ ܝ ܟـܟ ܟ ܠ ܡـܡ ܢـܢ ܢ ܣ ܥ ܦ ܨ ܩ ܪ ܫ ܬ ـܬܐ
ܚܡܫܐ ܙܒܼܥ̈ܐ: ـܳ ـܰ ـܶ ـܽ ـܺ ܠܓܒ ܡܥܪ̈ܒܝܐ
ܬܫܥܐ ܪ̈ܘܟܟܼܐ: ܒܼ ܓܼ ܓ̰ ܕܼ ܟـܼ ܟـ̰ ܦ̮ ܫ̰ ܬܼ
ܟܘܠܝܗܝ ܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ + ܙܘܥ̈ܐ + ܪ̈ܘܟܟܼܐ = 38 ܨܠܡ̈ܐ (45 ܨܠܡ̈ܐ ܥܡ ܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܐܚܪ̈ܝܐ ܠܓܒ ܡܕܢܚܝ̈ܐ).
ܐܗܐ ܛܟܼܣܐ ܕܒܢܝܢܐ ܕܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܒܗܘܝܐ ܝܠܗ ܪܒܐ ܥܣܩܐ ܘܩܬܪܐ ܩܐ ܝܠܦܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܒܢ̈ܝ ܐܘܡܬܢ ܘܒܘܫ ܥܣܩܐ ܝܠܗ ܗܘܝܐ ܩܐ ܢܘܟܼܪ̈ܝܐ ܕܒܥܝ ܝܠܦܝ ܠܐܗܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܕܐܝܬܠܗ ܥܩܪ̈ܐ ܥܡܝܩ̈ܐ ܓܘ ܬܫܥܝܬܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢ̈ܐ. ܠܐ ܐܚܟ̰ܝ ܐܗܐ ܐܝܢܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܒܫܩܠܐ ܝܠܗ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܒܪܝܬܐ ܕܬܠܬܐ ܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܘܐܢ̈ܐ ܝܢܐ 1. ܠܫܢܐ ܐܬܘܪ̈ܝܐ ( ܓܘ ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܘܚܕܐ ܡܢܬܐ ܕܡܘܪ̈ܕܢܐ ܕܒܢ̈ܝ ܐܘܡܬܢ) 2. ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ ( ܓܘ ܥܕܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ) 3. ܠܫܢܐ ܟܠܕܝܐ ( ܓܘ ܥܕܬܐ ܟܠܕܝܬܐ). ܘܝܬܝܪ ܡ̣ܢ ܐܗܐ ܐܝܬܠܢ ܬܪ̈ܝܢ ܨܠܡ̈ܐ ܕܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܡܕܢـܚـܝ̈ܐ ܘܡܥܪ̈ܒܼܝܐ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܡܚܕܕܐ.
ܩܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܡܨܐ ܟܠܐ ܩܕܡ ܠܦ̈ܐ ܘܥܥܠ̈ܐ ܕܙܒܼܢܐ ܘܗܘܐܠܗ ܫܘܦܐ ܓܘ ܡܐܙܠܬܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܘܚܕ ܠܫܢܐ ܓܡܝܪܐ ܡܚܘܝܕܐ ܩܐ ܟܠܝܗܝ ܒܢ̈ܝ ܐܘܡܬܢ ܒܬܘܕܝܬ̈ܗ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܐܠܨܝܬܐ ܠܚܘܕܬܐ ܕܒܐܬܝܐ ܝܠܗ:
ܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܪ̈ܘܫܡܝܐ ܩܐ ܟܠܗ̇ ܒܢ̈ܝ ܐܘܡܬܢ ܗܘܝ ܒܢܝ̈ܐ ܥܠ ܨܠܡ̈ܐ ܐܣܛܪܢܓܠܝ̈ܐ:
ܐ(اa )  ܐ̈ (إe ) ܒ(ب b) ܒܼ(o و) ܓ(گg ) ܓܼ(غgh ) ܓ̰(جj )    ܕ(د d) ܖ(ذ dh) ܗ(هـ h) ܘ(و  u:) ܘܿ(و o) ܙ(ز z) ܚ(ح) ܛ(ط) ܝ(ي i) ܟـ(ك k) ܟܼـ(خ kh) ܟ̰ـ(چ ch) ܠ(ل l) ܡ(م m) ܢـ(ن n) ܣ(س s) ܥ(ع) ܦ(پ p) ܦ̮(ف f) ܨ(ص) ܩ(ق) ܪ(ر r) ܫ(ش sh) ܫ̰(ش)  ܬ(ت t) ܬܼ(ث th)
ܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܫܬܝܩ̈ܐ ܝܢܐ 26 : ܒ ܓ ܓܼ ܓ̰ ܕ ܖ ܙ ܚ ܛ ܟـ ܟܼـ ܟ̰ـ ܠ ܡ ܢـ ܣ ܥ ܦ ܦ̮ ܨ ܩ ܪ ܫ ܫ̰ ܬ ܬܼ
ܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܩܠܢ̈ܐ ܝܢܐ 7 : ܐ ܐ̈ ܒܼ ܗ ܘ ܘܿ ܝ
ܟܠܝܗܝ ܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܒܗܘܝܐ ܝܢܐ 33 ܘܠܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܣܢܝܩܬܐ ܡܦܠܚܬܐ ܕܙܘܥ̈ܐ ܡܐܝܟܿ ܟܠܝܗܝ ܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܫܘܘܫܛ̈ܐ ܓܘ ܬܒܼܝܠ ܡܘܪܕܢܐ. ܐܗܐ ܛܟܼܣܐ ܒܕ ܗܘܐ ܪܒܐ ܦܫܝܛܐ ܩܐ ܩܪܝܬܐ ܘܟܬܒܼܬܐ  ܩܐ ܒܢ̈ܝ ܐܘܡܬܢ ܘܢܘܟܼܪ̈ܝܐ ܡܛܠ ܕܒܢܝܐ ܝܠܗ ܥܠ ܛܟܼܣܐ ܕܩܠ̈ܐ ܕܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܘܠܐܟܼܐ ܚܕܟܡܐ ܛܘܦ̮ܣܐ ܩܐ ܡܢܗܪܬܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܛܟܼܣܐ.


أي نشر، أو إعادة تحرير لهذه المادة، دون الإشارة الى " عنكاوا كوم " يترتب عليه أجراءات قانونية

غير متصل عنكاوا دوت كوم

  • مشرف
  • عضو مميز متقدم
  • *
  • مشاركة: 33965
    • مشاهدة الملف الشخصي
    • البريد الالكتروني
رد: ܚܕ ܠܫܢܐ ܩܐ ܚܕܐ ܐܘ
« رد #2 في: 21:09 16/11/2005 »
6. ܦܠܛ̈ܐ (ܢܦܩ̈ܐ)
1. ܓܘܢܐܝܬ ܫܪܪܐ ܥܣܩܐ ܝܠܗ ܫܚܠܦܬܗ ܐܢ ܠܐ ܡܨܐ ܒܪܢܫܐ ܡܫܟ̰ܘܚܐ ܠܐܘܪܚܐ ܡܨܥܝܬܐ ܘܫܘܬܦܢܬܐ ܠܫܚܠܘܦܐ ܐܗܐ ܫܪܪܐ ܕܡܡܛܘܝܐ ܝܠܗ ܢܟܼܝܢܐ ܥܠ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܘܫܘܘܫܛܐ ܕܟܠ ܓܘܫܡܐ ܝܢ ܒܪܝܐ ܓܘ ܕܐܗܐ ܟܝܢܐ ܘܥܠܡܐ. ܓܘ ܐܘܡܬܢ ܫܪܪܐ ܡܪܝܡܢܐ ܝܠܗ ܘܣܓܝܘܬܐ ܕܥܒܼܕ̈ܐ ܕܡܘܪ̈ܕܢܐ ܗܦܟܝ̈ܐ ܝܢܐ ܘܥܠܕܒܼܒܼ̈ܐ ܠܢܝܫܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܘܫܘܘܫܛܐ ܕܟܢܘܫܝܢ ܘܩܘܝܡܗ ܟܠܢܝܐ. ܥܣܩܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܫܚܠܦܬܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܫܪܪܐ ܐܢ ܠܐ ܟܦܫܝ ܟܠܝܗܝ ܥܘܫܢ̈ܐ ܘܚـܝܠ̈ܐ ܫܪ̈ܫܢܝܐ ܫܪܝܪ̈ܐ ܕܟܢܘܫܝܢ ܡܛܠ ܦܬܚܬܐ ܕܬܪܥܐ ܕܒܪܝܬܐ ܚܕܬܐ ܘܫܒܼܩܬܐ ܕܙܗܪܝܪ̈ܐ ܕܒܗܪܐ ܙܪ̈ܩܝ ܡܥܠ ܐܘܦܩܐ ܚܕܬܐ ܡܛܠ ܩܘܝܡܐ ܠܫܢܝܐ ܘܡܪܕܘܬܢܝܐ ܘܫܘܘܫܛܐ ܓܘ ܡܐܙܠܬܐ ܕܡܕܝܢܝܘܬܐ ܚܕܬܐ ܓܘ ܕܐܗܐ ܒܪܝܬܐ.
2. ܫܪ̈ܝܬܐ ܕܡܒܘܥ̈ܐ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܒܘܨܝܐ ܡܚـܙܘܝܐ ܝܢܐ ܕܐܡܘܬ̈ܐ ܕܡܥܪܒܼܐ ܒܥܠܬܐ ܕܡܨܝܬܐ ܕܦܠܛܝܗܝ ܡ̣ܢ ܗ̇ܝ ܬܚܡܢܬܐ ܘܪܢܝܐ ܥܬܝܩܐ ܘܗܦܟܝܐ ܡܨܐܠܗܘܢ ܠܦܣܥܐ ܚܕܐ ܦܣܘܥܬܐ ܪܒܬܐ ܘܓܘܪܬܐ ܓܘ ܚـܩܠܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ. ܐܢ̈ܐ ܐܬܪ̈ܘܬܐ ܡܨܐܠܗܘܢ ܠܫܢܘܝ̈ܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܠܫܢܐ ܠܬܝܢܝܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܕܥܡܐ ܘܗܡܙܡܬܐ ܘܡܘܥܒܼܪܗܘܢ ܫܘܚܠܦ̈ܐ ܓܘܪ̈ܐ ܓܘ ܨܠܡܐ ܕܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܘܡܥܒܼܪܬܐ ܕܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܩܠܢ̈ܐ ܘܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܚܕܬܐ ܘܬܘܪܨܡܡܠܠܐ ܕܠܚܡܝ ܥܡ ܠܫܢܐ ܚـܝܐ ܕܟܢܘܫܝܐ ܘܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܚܕܬܐ.

3. ܬܫܥܝܬܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܟܢܘܫܝ̈ܐ ܓܘ ܡܥܪܒܼܐ ܘܫܪ̈ܝܬܐ ܥܠܗܘܢ ܡܚـܙܘܝܐ ܝܢܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܘܩܘܝܡܐ ܘܦܪܣܬܐ ܕܡܪܕܘܬܐ ܟܐ ܒܪܝܐ ܥܠ ܬܪ̈ܝܢ ܐܘܪ̈ܚـܬܐ:
ܐ. ܐܘܪܚܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܟܝܢܝܬܐ ܐܝܡܢ ܕܢܩܝܦܘܬ̈ܐ ܕܚܕܐ ܐܘܡܬܐ ܡܣܝܡܢ̈ܐ ܝܢܐ  ܐܢ ܠܐ ܝܢܐ ܒܐܬܝܐ ܥܠ ܕܗ̇ܝ ܐܘܡܬܐ ܓܕܫ̈ܐ ܘܩܘܡܝܬ̈ܐ ܥܣܩ̈ܐ ܘܦܢܝܢ̈ܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܒܥܠܒܼܒܼ̈ܐ ܕܠܝܬܠܗܘܢ ܕܝܠܝܬ̈ܐ ܐ݇ܢܫܝ̈ܐ ܝܢ ܕܠܝܬܠܗܘܢ ܐܝܩܪܐ ܩܐ ܫܘܚܠܦ̈ܐ ܡܪ̈ܕܘܬܢܝܐ، ܐܝܬܝܩܘܢܝ̈ܐ، ܬܘܕܝܬܢܝ̈ܐ ܘܐܬܼܢܘܠܘܓ̰ܝ̈ܐ. ܐܗܐ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܟܝܢܝܬܐ ܒܚـܙܝܐ ܝܘܚ ܓܘ ܕܪܐ ܕܗܒܼܢܝܐ ܕܦܪܣܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܐܪܡܝܐ ܘܡܪܕܘܬܝܗܝ ܒܐܪܥܐ ܕܒܝܬܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ ܘܐܬܪ̈ܘܬ̈ܐ ܕܫܒܼܒܼ̈ܐ ܐܝܢܐ ܐܗܐ ܒܗܪܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܦܫܠܗ̇ ܡܘܓܕܠܬܐ ܘܡܘܟܠܝܬܐ ܘܐܚܪܬܐ ܦܣܩܬܐ ܕܐܣܘܪܐ ܐܠܨܝܐ ܒܝܠ ܡܐܙܠܬܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܘܥܡܢ.
ܒ. ܐܘܪܚܐ ܕܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܬܪܡܝܬܢܝܬܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܗ̇ܝ ܐܘܪܚܐ ܚܕܢܝܬܐ ܩܐ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܘܡܪܕܘܬܐ ܐܝܡܢ ܕܟܠܗܘܢ ܢܩܝܦܘܬ̈ܐ ܘܐܝܟܢܘܬ̈ܐ ܕܚܕܐ ܐܘܡܬܐ ܝܢܐ ܡܪ̈ܝܡܢܐ. ܒܝܕ ܡܩܡܬܐ ܕܚܕܐ ܬܪܡܝܬܐ ܡܘܪܝܙܬܐ ܥܠ ܐܣ̈ܐ ܥܠܡܝ̈ܐ ܕܚܒܼܫܐ ܟܠܗܘܢ ܓܘܫܡ̈ܐ ܘܩܘܒܘܚـܝܬ̈ܐ ܕܚܕ ܟܢܘܫܝܐ ܡܬܗܘܝܢܬܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܕܗ̇ܘ ܟܢܘܫܝܐ ܕܠܫܢܗ ܘܡܪܕܘܬܗ ܡܛܝ ܠܚܕ ܕܪܓܼܐ ܥܠܝܐ ܡܐܝܟܿ ܕܒܚـܙܝܐ ܝܘܚ ܓܘ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܘܫܘܘܫܛܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ  ܬܘܪܟܝܐ ܘܦܪܣܝܐ ܘܝܗܘܕܝ̈ܐ ܒܙܒܼܢܐ ܕܩܐܡ.

4. ܡܥܒܼܪܬܐ ܕܙܘܥ̈ܐ ܓܘ ܐܬܘܬ̈ܢ ܒܕܪܐ 7ـ8 ܝܗܘܐ ܚܕܐ ܦܣܘܥܬܐ ܡܣܝܡܢܬܐ ܩܐ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܘܦܫܝܛܘܬܐ ܕܩܪܝܬܐ ܘܟܬܒܼܬܐ ܐܦܢ ܕܐܗܐ ܠܐ ܗܘܐ ܠܗ̇ ܡܠܝܢܬܐ ܘܓܡܝܪܬܐ ܒܚܩܠܐ ܕܫܘܘܫܛܐ ܝܘܠܦܢܝܐ ܕܛܟܼܣܐ ܕܟܬܒܼܬܐ ܘܝܠܦܬܐ.

5. ܒܥܠܬܐ ܕܫܘܚܠܦܐ ܕܗܘܐܠܗ ܓܘ ܡܦܠܚܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܕܗܡܙܡܬܐ ܡܓܒܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܥܬܝܩ̈ܐ (ܣܘܪܝܝܐ ܥܬܝܩܐ) ܡܨܐܠܗ ܥܡܐ ܐܬܘܪܝܐ ܦܪܣ ܟܬܒܼ̈ܐ ܣܦܪ̈ܝܐ ܘܡܥܒܼܪ ܐܗܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܓܘ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܪܝܬܐ ܘܚܡܝܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܡܢܬܐ ܕܥܡܢ ܠܠܫܢܗ̇ ܚـܝܐ. ܒܗ̇ܝ ܥܕܢܐ ܒܚـܙܝܐ ܝܘܚ ܡܚـܝܠܘܬܐ ܘܢܘܠܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܓܘ ܥܡܢ ܬܒܥܢܐ ܕܥܕܬܐ ܟܠܕܝܬܐ ܘܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ ܒܥܠܬܐ ܕܠܐ ܫܢܝܬܝܗܝ ܠܠܫܢܐ ܕܗܡܙܡܬܐ ܕܥܡܐ ܩܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܥܠܬܐ ܒܚـܙܝܐ ܝܘܚ ܕܐܢ̈ܐ ܩܘܒܘܚـܝܬ̈ܐ ܡܦܠܘܚ̈ܐ ܝܢܐ ܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܕܐܬܪ̈ܘܬܐ ܕܒܚـܝܐ ܝܢܐ ܓܘܝܗܝ ܡܛܠ ܕܒܘܫ ܡܕܒܼܘܩܐ ܝܢܐ ܥܡ ܪܓܼܫܝܗܝ ܘܚـܝܘܬܝܗܝ ܝܘܡܝܬܐ ܘܒܐܚܪܝܬܐ ܐܢ̈ܐ ܠܥܙ̈ܐ ܕܒܢ̈ܝ ܐܘܡܬܢ ܪܚܩܘܢܐ ܝܢܐ ܘܒܗܘܝܐ ܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܒܝܬܝܗܝ.



7. ܡܚܫܚܝܬ̈ܐ
ܠܦܘܬܼ ܒܘܨܝܢ ܒܥܠܠ ܥܠ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܘܣܦܪܝܘܬܐ ܘܦܠܛ̈ܐ ܡܪ̈ܝܡܢܐ ܘܡܣܝܡܢ̈ܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܘܫܘܘܫܛܐ ܒܚـܙܝܐ ܝܘܚ ܕܥܡܐ ܕܡܛܝܬܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܣܦܪܝܘܬܗ ܘܠܫܢܗ ܠܕܪܓܼܐ ܥܠܝܐ ܘܡܘܢܬܝܐ ܘܕܡܨܝܐ ܝܠܗ ܕܩܝܡ ܩܕܡ ܠܦ̈ܐ ܕܙܒܼܢܐ ܝܠܗ ܗ̇ܘ ܥܡܐ ܕܡܨܝܐ ܝܠܗ ܕܒܪܐ ܩܐ ܓܢܗ ܚܕ ܠܫܢܐ ܪܘܫܡܝܐ ܦܠܝܛܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܡܙܓܼܬܐ ܘܚـܝܕܬܐ ܕܠܥܙ̈ܐ ܕܗܡܙܡܬܐ ܕܗܘܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܪܘܫܡܝܐ ܘܗܘܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܦܫܝܛܐ ܒܟܒܼܬܐ، ܒܩܪܝܬܐ ܘܗܡܙܡܬܐ ܓܘ ܟܠܝܗܝ ܡܫܩܠ̈ܐ ܕܚـܝܘܬܐ ܝܘܡܝܬܐ.
ܡܛܠ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܘܫܘܘܫܛܐ ܘܚـܕܝܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܢ ܘܡܫܦܠܬܐ ܘܡܟܠܝܬܐ ܕܒܪܝܬܐ ܕܠܥܙ̈ܐ ܒܥܠܬܐ ܕܥܒܼܪܬܐ ܕܬܚܡܢܝܬ̈ܐ ܘܪ̈ܢܝܐ ܕܝܠܢܝ̈ܐ ܕܥܕܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܓܘ ܒܢ̈ܝ ܐܘܡܬܢ ܡܚـܫܘܚܐ ܝܘܢ ܠܢܘܩـܙ̈ܐ ܕܒܐܬܝܐ ܝܢܐ:
1. ܦܣܩܬܐ ܕܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܐܣܬܪܢܓܠܝ̈ܐ ܗܘܝ ܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܪ̈ܘܫܡܝܐ ܓܘ ܣܝܡܬܐ ܕܟܬܒܼ̈ܐ ܕܝܘܠܦܢܐ ܓܘ ܡܕܪ̈ܫܝܬܢ ܘܣܪܛܐ ܡܕܢـܚـܝܐ ܘܡܥܪܒܼܝܐ ܗܘܝ ܣܪ̈ܛܐ ܡܘܬܪܐ ܩܐ ܗ̇ܘ ܕܒܥܐ ܝܠܦܠܗܘܢ.
2. ܫܪܝܬܐ ܒܚܕܐ ܬܪܡܝܬܐ ܡܛܠ ܦܪܩܬܐ ܘܡܒܛܠܢܬܐ ܕܙܘܥ̈ܐ ܘܡܥܒܼܪܬܐ ܕܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܩܠܢ̈ܐ ܥܠ ܐܬܘܬ̈ܢ ܕܗܘܝܐ ܩܪܝܬܐ ܘܟܬܒܼܬܐ ܦܫܝܛܬܐ ܩܐ ܝܠܘܦ̈ܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܠܫܢܐ. ܐܗܐ ܬܪܡܝܬܐ ܚܒܼܫܐ ܦܪ̈ܨܘܦܐ ܝܕܘܥ̈ܐ ܒܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܘܡܬܒܼܝ ܚܕ ܣܕܪܐ ܩܐ ܦܠܚـܢܝܗܝ ܘܙܒܼܢܐ ܩܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܬܪܡܝܬܐ. ܘܣܒܼܪܝ ܪܒܐ ܝܠܗ ܕܕܘܪ̈ܫܐ ܘܫܪ̈ܝܬܐ ܕܝܘܗܒܼܐ ܝܘܢ ܒܥܠܠ ܒܕ ܗܘܝ ܚܕ ܡܒܘܥܐ ܩܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܦܠܚـܢܐ ܓܡܝܪܐ.

3. ܡܩܡܬܐ ܕܚܕܐ ܬܪܡܝܬܐ ܕܟܬܒܼܐ ܚܕ ܟܘܢܫܚܫܚܬ̈ܐ ܕܚܒܼܫܐ ܐܗܐ ܣܝܥܬܐ ܦܪ̈ܨܘܦܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܟܠܝܗܝ ܫܘܡܗ̈ܐ ܘܠܥܙ̈ܐ ܕܐܘܡܬܢ ܕܡܨܝ ܨܚܨܝ ܘܒܨܝ ܥܠ ܚܫܚܬ̈ܐ ܕܠܥܙ̈ܐ ܡܘܦܠܚ̈ܐ ܓܘ ܚـܝܘܬܐ ܝܘܡܝܬܐ ܘܡܓܡܪܝ ܠܗ ܐܗܐ ܟܘܢܫܚܫܚܬ̈ܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܠܟܣܝܟܘܢ̈ܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ ܘܕܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܢܘܟܼܪ̈ܝܐ.

4. ܡܩܡܬܐ ܕܚܕܐ ܬܪܡܝܬܐ ܒܚܒܼܫܐ ܦܪ̈ܨܘܦܐ ܡ̣ܢ ܟܠܝܗܝ ܠܥܙ̈ܐ ܘܫܘܡܗ̈ܐ ܕܒܢ̈ܝ ܐܘܡܬܢ ܘܘܠܝܬܝܗܝ ܗܘܝܐ ܡܪܝܙܬܐ ܕܚܕ ܬܘܪܨܡܡܠܠܐ ܚܕܬܐ ܒܢܝܐ ܥܠ ܡܒܘܥ̈ܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܡܕܢܚـܝܐ ܚܕܬܐ ܘܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ ܥܬܝܩܐ ܘܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܕܢܘܟܼܪ̈ܝܐ.

5. ܓܒܝܬܐ ܕܚܕܐ ܣܝܥܬܐ ܓܫܩܢܐ ܘܠܝܬܗ̇ ܗܘܝܐ ܕܟܦܫܐ ܟܠܝܗܝ ܣܘܥܪ̈ܢܐ ܕܣܝܥܬ̈ܐ ܘܣܕܪ̈ܐ ܕܦܠܚـܢܝܗܝ ܕܦܝܫܝ ܡܘܩܪ̈ܒܼܐ ܒܝܕ ܣܝܥܬ̈ܐ ܦܪ̈ܝܫܐ ܕܬܪ̈ܡܝܬܐ ܘܐܢ ܐܢܝ ܒܫܪܪܐ ܒܡܨܝܐ ܝܢܐ ܠܫܪܘܪܐ ܠܐܗܐ ܣܕܪܐ ܕܦܠܚـܢܐ ܬܪܡܝܬܢܝܐ.

6. ܡܩܡܬܐ ܕܚܕܐ ܣܝܥܬܐ ܡܛܝܒܼܢܝܬܐ ܕܠܘܡܕܐ ܕܒܐܬܝܐ ܝܠܗ ܘܡܚܫܘܚܐ ܝܘܢ ܕܗܘܐ ܠܘܡܕܐ ܟܠ ܫܢ݇ܬܐ ܒܙܒܼܢܐ ܕܩܐܡ ܗܠ ܢܦܠܚ ܠܚܕ ܪܐܙܐ.

7. ܡܩܡܬܐ ܕܚܕܐ ܣܝܥܬܐ ܐܩܘܢܘܡܝܝܬܐ ܘܠܝܬܗ̇ ܗܘܝܐ ܚܠܢܬܐ ܕܐܩܢܘܡܝܐ ܕܠܘܡܕܐ ܡܛܠ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܘܫܘܘܫܛܐ ܕܠܫܢܢ ܘܚܘܝܕܗ.

8. ܡܩܡܬܐ ܕܚܕܐ ܬܪܡܝܬܐ ܕܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ ܐܠܟܬܪ̈ܘܢܝܐ ܘܠܝܬܗ̇ ܗܘܝܐ ܨܚܨܝܬܐ ܘܒܘܨܝܐ ܠܣܢܝܩܘܬ̈ܐ ܘܒܨܘܪ̈ܘܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܢ ܓܘ ܛܟܼܣܐ ܕܘܝܢܕܘܙ ܘܥܕܪܢܬܐ ܕܬܪܡܝܬܐ ܕܒܝܬܼܡܪܕܘܬܐ ܓܘ ܕܐܗܐ ܚܩܠܐ ܡܛܠ ܡܬܛܘܪܢܘܬܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܛܟܼܣܐ ܕܗܘܐ ܫܘܝܐ ܥܡ ܠܫܢ̈ܐ ܐܚܪ̈ܢܐ ܓܘ ܛܟܼܣܐ ܕܘܝܢܕܘܙ ܘܡܚܫܘܚܐ ܝܘܢ ܕܗܘܐ ܕܘܟܬܘܪ ܓ̰ܘܪܓ̰ ܟܝܪܙ ܚܕ ܗܕܡܐ ܕܐܗܐ ܬܪܡܝܬܐ.
ܒܥܘܬܝ ܝܠܗ̇ ܕܟܠܝܗܝ ܒܢܘܢ̈ܐ ܫܪܝܪ̈ܐ ܒܛܠܢܝ ܘܟܠܝ ܡ̣ܢ ܡܥܒܼܪܬܐ ܕܥܕܢܐ ܘܨܪܦܬܐ ܕܙܘܙ̈ܐ ܒܝܕ ܥܒܼܕܬܐ ܕܦ̮ܘܢܬܐܬ (ܨܠܡ̈ܐ ܕܐܬܘܬ̈ܐ) ܥܠ ܛܟܼܣ̈ܐ ܕܥܪ̈ܒܝܐ ܘܦܪ̈ܣܝܐ  ܘܠܬܢܝ̈ܐ ܡܛܠ ܒܘܫ ܛܒܼܬܐ ܝܠܗ̇ ܠܦܠܚܐ ܘܡܓܡܘܪܐ ܛܟܼܣܐ ܕܝܠܢܝܐ ܒܐܘܡܬܢ.




8. ܡܒܘܥ̈ܐ
1. ܬܫܥܝܬܐܕ ܣܦܪܝܘܬܐ ܐܬܘܪܝܬܐ ܡܢܬܐ ܩܕܡܝܬܐ، ܬܪܝܢܝܬܐ، ܬܠܝܬܝܬܐ ..... ܐܣܝܐ ܦܐܪܐ ܣܪܡܣ
2. ܬܘܪܨܡܡܠܠܐ ܕܠܫܢܝܐ ܐ݇ܣܘܪܝܝܐ ......................... ܟܘܪܫ ܒܢܝܡܝܢ ܘܢܡܪܘܕ ܣܝܡܘܢܘ
3. ܡܠܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܐܬܘܪܝܐ ܣܘܕܝܐ ......................... ܢܡܪܘܕ ܣܝܡܘܢܘ
4. ܠܟܣܝܟܘܢ ܟܠܕܝܐ ܥܪܒܝܐ................................ ܝܥܩܘܒ ܐ. ܡܢܢܐ
5. ܠܟܣܝܟܘܢ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ .............................. ܡܬܪܦܘܠܝܛܐ ܬܐܘܡܐ ܐܘܕܘ
6. ܙܗܪܝܪܐ ܠܫܢܐ ܥܪܒܝܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ.......................... ܩܫܝܫܐ ܫܠܝܡܘܢ ܝܫܘܥ ܚܕܒܼܫܒܐ
 ܩܫܝܫܐ ܥܡܢܘܐܝܠ ܒܝܬܝܘܚܢ         
7. ܬܘܪܨܡܡܠܠܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܐܪܡܝܐ ........................... ܝܥܩܘܒ ܐ. ܡܢܢܐ
Tore Janson.……………….. språk och historia .8
Jan Svarvik …….………………………… öspråk .9
          Robert McCrum,
Rober MacNeil, William Cran … The story of English .10
Bengt knutsson 1982 ……………… assur eller aram .11
Terence Hawkes …….… structulism and semiotics .12



أي نشر، أو إعادة تحرير لهذه المادة، دون الإشارة الى " عنكاوا كوم " يترتب عليه أجراءات قانونية